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From: TSS ()
Subject: BSE (7/15/05) CHANNEL 2 T.V. HOUSTON TEXAS
Date: July 15, 2005 at 1:55 pm PST


BSE (7/15/05)

POSTED: 11:11 am CDT July 15, 2005

HOUSTON -- "Don't look for trouble" is good advice, unless you're a Texas cattleman. The recent discovery of a Texas cow with BSE, or mad cow disease, should mean more scrutiny of American beef.

The cow was the second one in the US to test positive for BSE, which can cause a fatal degenerative brain disease in humans when they eat beef from infected cattle.

The USDA says our beef supply is protected by feed regulations and other safeguards and currently tests one cow in 90 for BSE.

Foreign importers of American beef have not been satisfied by those assurances and U.S. consumers should not be either.

Japan, for example, tests each animal for mad cow disease and has stopped all U.S. beef imports.

Local 2 believes that more and better testing would best serve our beef industry and the beef-eating public.


I'm Steve Wasserman. Let me hear from you.


swasserman@click2houston.com

EDITORIAL@CLICK2HOUSTON.COM

http://www.click2houston.com/editorials/4727955/detail.html


----- Original Message -----
From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
To: EDITORIAL@CLICK2HOUSTON.COM
Cc: swasserman@click2houston.com
Sent: Friday, July 15, 2005 3:53 PM
Subject: MAD COW DISEASE BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (all TSEs in cattle and humans)


Greetings Steve Wasserman,

so much i could tell you, would make your head spin,
but nobody cares. i just saw your editorial on channel 2 news and just about sh!t. THANK YOU! i have wasted almost 8 years of my life, every day, trying to warn the public of the exact same thing you did, after watching my mother die a most hideous death from the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease. I have investigated this daily for almost 8 years and what i have found is that they have lied to us from day one. you just think that positive, positive, inclonclusive, secret postive, negative, then finally POSTIVE BY WEYBRIDGE, thanks to the Honorable Phyllis Fond at the OIG, you just think that was the only
mad cow in Texas. but i have news for you, that was an accident. The Honorable Phyllis Fong,
SHE should be given a friggen medal of honor. TEXAS blatantly tried to cover that nov. 2004 cow up, but could not even get that right. TEXAS did however manage to cover-up another mad cow. TEXAS just did not test that stumbling and staggering cow at all;



FDA Statement
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Statement
May 4, 2004
Media Inquiries: 301-827-6242
Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA

Statement on Texas Cow With Central Nervous System Symptoms
On Friday, April 30 th , the Food and Drug Administration learned that a cow with central nervous system symptoms had been killed and shipped to a processor for rendering into animal protein for use in animal feed.

FDA, which is responsible for the safety of animal feed, immediately began an investigation. On Friday and throughout the weekend, FDA investigators inspected the slaughterhouse, the rendering facility, the farm where the animal came from, and the processor that initially received the cow from the slaughterhouse.

FDA's investigation showed that the animal in question had already been rendered into "meat and bone meal" (a type of protein animal feed). Over the weekend FDA was able to track down all the implicated material. That material is being held by the firm, which is cooperating fully with FDA.

Cattle with central nervous system symptoms are of particular interest because cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE, also known as "mad cow disease," can exhibit such symptoms. In this case, there is no way now to test for BSE. But even if the cow had BSE, FDA's animal feed rule would prohibit the feeding of its rendered protein to other ruminant animals (e.g., cows, goats, sheep, bison).

FDA is sending a letter to the firm summarizing its findings and informing the firm that FDA will not object to use of this material in swine feed only. If it is not used in swine feed, this material will be destroyed. Pigs have been shown not to be susceptible to BSE. If the firm agrees to use the material for swine feed only, FDA will track the material all the way through the supply chain from the processor to the farm to ensure that the feed is properly monitored and used only as feed for pigs.

To protect the U.S. against BSE, FDA works to keep certain mammalian protein out of animal feed for cattle and other ruminant animals. FDA established its animal feed rule in 1997 after the BSE epidemic in the U.K. showed that the disease spreads by feeding infected ruminant protein to cattle.

Under the current regulation, the material from this Texas cow is not allowed in feed for cattle or other ruminant animals. FDA's action specifying that the material go only into swine feed means also that it will not be fed to poultry.

FDA is committed to protecting the U.S. from BSE and collaborates closely with the U.S. Department of Agriculture on all BSE issues. The animal feed rule provides crucial protection against the spread of BSE, but it is only one of several such firewalls. FDA will soon be improving the animal feed rule, to make this strong system even stronger.

####

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2004/NEW01061.html

IN TEXAS, we feed our cattle ruminant protein, and lots of it. but remember (the fda cannot seem to get this right)

.1 gram is lethal;

THE TEXAS GONZALES/PURINA INCIDENT SHOWED THAT 5.5 GRAMS OF
RUMINANT PROTEIN WAS FED TO CATTLE ;

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
P01-05
January 30, 2001
Print Media:
301-827-6242
Broadcast Media:
301-827-3434
Consumer Inquiries:
888-INFO-FDA

FDA ANNOUNCES TEST RESULTS FROM TEXAS FEED LOT

Today the Food and Drug Administration announced the results of tests
taken on feed used at a Texas feedlot
that was suspected of containing meat and bone meal from other domestic
cattle -- a violation of FDA's 1997
prohibition on using ruminant material in feed for other ruminants.
Results indicate that a very low level of
prohibited material was found in the feed fed to cattle.

FDA has determined that each animal could have consumed, at most and in
total, five-and-one-half grams -
approximately a quarter ounce -- of prohibited material. These animals
weigh approximately 600 pounds.

It is important to note that the prohibited material was domestic in
origin (therefore not likely to contain infected
material because there is no evidence of BSE in U.S. cattle), fed at a
very low level, and fed only once. The
potential risk of BSE to such cattle is therefore exceedingly low, even
if the feed were contaminated.

According to Dr. Bernard Schwetz, FDA's Acting Principal Deputy
Commissioner, "The challenge to regulators
and industry is to keep this disease out of the United States. One
important defense is to prohibit the use of any
ruminant animal materials in feed for other ruminant animals. Combined
with other steps, like U.S. Department
of Agriculture's (USDA) ban on the importation of live ruminant animals
from affected countries, these steps
represent a series of protections, to keep American cattle free of BSE."

Despite this negligible risk, Purina Mills, Inc., is nonetheless
announcing that it is voluntarily purchasing all 1,222
of the animals held in Texas and mistakenly fed the animal feed
containing the prohibited material. Therefore,
meat from those animals will not enter the human food supply. FDA
believes any cattle that did not consume
feed containing the prohibited material are unaffected by this incident,
and should be handled in the beef supply
clearance process as usual.

FDA believes that Purina Mills has behaved responsibly by first
reporting the human error that resulted in the
misformulation of the animal feed supplement and then by working closely
with State and Federal authorities.

This episode indicates that the multi-layered safeguard system put into
place is essential for protecting the food
supply and that continued vigilance needs to be taken, by all concerned,
to ensure these rules are followed
routinely.

FDA will continue working with USDA as well as State and local officials
to ensure that companies and
individuals comply with all laws and regulations designed to protect the
U.S. food supply.

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2001/NEW00752.html

From: TSS (216-119-144-34.ipset24.wt.net)
Subject: 1 in 2 CHANCE OF GETTING BSE AKA MAD COW BY THE ORAL ROUTE (PRIMATE STUDY)
Date: January 27, 2005 at 7:03 am PST

Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates

Corinne Ida Lasmézas, Emmanuel Comoy, Stephen Hawkins, Christian Herzog, Franck Mouthon, Timm Konold, Frédéric Auvré, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nicole Salès, Gerald Wells, Paul Brown, Jean-Philippe Deslys
Summary The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to non-human primates. We gave two macaques a 5 g oral dose of brain homogenate from a BSE-infected cow. One macaque developed vCJD-like neurological disease 60 months after exposure, whereas the other remained free of disease at 76 months. On the basis of these findings and data from other studies, we made a preliminary estimate of the food exposure risk for man, which provides additional assurance that existing public health measures can prevent transmission of BSE to man.

Published online January 27, 2005

http://www.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa

It is clear that the designing scientists must

also have shared Mr Bradley’s surprise at the results because all the dose

levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s145d.pdf

2

6. It also appears to me that Mr Bradley’s answer (that it would take less than say 100

grams) was probably given with the benefit of hindsight; particularly if one

considers that later in the same answer Mr Bradley expresses his surprise that it

could take as little of 1 gram of brain to cause BSE by the oral route within the

same species. This information did not become available until the "attack rate"

experiment had been completed in 1995/96. This was a titration experiment

designed to ascertain the infective dose. A range of dosages was used to ensure

that the actual result was within both a lower and an upper limit within the study

and the designing scientists would not have expected all the dose levels to trigger

infection. The dose ranges chosen by the most informed scientists at that time

ranged from 1 gram to three times one hundred grams. It is clear that the designing

scientists must have also shared Mr Bradley’s surprise at the results because all the

dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s147f.pdf

Re: BSE .1 GRAM LETHAL NEW STUDY SAYS via W.H.O. Dr Maura Ricketts

[BBC radio 4 FARM news]

http://www.maddeer.org/audio/BBC4farmingtoday2_1_03.ram

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm

2) Infectious dose:

To cattle: 1 gram of infected brain material (by oral ingestion)

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci/bio/bseesbe.shtml

NEW MAD COW STRAIN CALLED BASE, VERY SIMILAR TO SPORADIC CJD IN HUMANS;

Medical Sciences
Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Cristina Casalone *, Gianluigi Zanusso , Pierluigi Acutis *, Sergio Ferrari , Lorenzo Capucci , Fabrizio Tagliavini ¶, Salvatore Monaco ||, and Maria Caramelli *

*Centro di Referenza Nazionale per le Encefalopatie Animali, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via Bologna, 148, 10195 Turin, Italy; Department of Neurological and Visual Science, Section of Clinical Neurology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy; Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi, 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy; and ¶Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta," Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved December 23, 2003 (received for review September 9, 2003)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Human and animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be biochemically differentiated on the basis of the molecular mass of the protease-resistant PrPSc fragments and the degree of glycosylation. Epidemiological, molecular, and transmission studies strongly suggest that the single strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has infected humans, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The unprecedented biological properties of the BSE agent, which circumvents the so-called "species barrier" between cattle and humans and adapts to different mammalian species, has raised considerable concern for human health. To date, it is unknown whether more than one strain might be responsible for cattle TSE or whether the BSE agent undergoes phenotypic variation after natural transmission. Here we provide evidence of a second cattle TSE. The disorder was pathologically characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques, as opposed to the lack of amyloid deposition in typical BSE cases, and by a different pattern of regional distribution and topology of brain PrPSc accumulation. In addition, Western blot analysis showed a PrPSc type with predominance of the low molecular mass glycoform and a protease-resistant fragment of lower molecular mass than BSE-PrPSc. Strikingly, the molecular signature of this previously undescribed bovine PrPSc was similar to that encountered in a distinct subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.C. and G.Z. contributed equally to this work.

||To whom correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: salvatore.monaco@mail.univr.it .

www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0305777101

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1

Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse Project Number: 3625-32000-073-07
Date: Sun, 2 Jan 2005 11:21:30 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
To: BSE-L@LISTSERV.KALIV.UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE
References: <41D723D7.60809@wt.net>


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Greetings list members,

I was going over the data from the 1st documented BSE/TSE cow
in the USA and find it disturbing they thought it important enough
to use WB to verify there immunohistochemistry test then. HOWEVER,
on the 3, 4, and 5 mad cow in the USA, they refused to use WB
to confirm this. I guess it worked so well the first time they could not
afford to use it again. (please note the 2nd USA mad cow was the
one in TEXAS they cover-up after witnessing the stumbling and staggering
cow and then refusing to BSE/TSE test it, just decided to send to
the render to get rid of all evidence. SO, if you count that Texas cow,
there would have most likely have been 5 confirmed cases of BSE/TSE in
the USA, if they would have used the WB like they did on the first cow)...


TSEs Touch Off
ARS Research


A year ago this month, a group of ARS
scientists and technicians gave up their Christmas time off and even
delayed family vacations to provide characterization of the first case
of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)—commonly called mad cow
disease—to be found in the United States.

On December 23, 2003, a Canadian cow shipped to slaughter from a farm in
Mabton, Washington, had come up presumptively positive for BSE in
testing by USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS),
which has diagnostic responsibility and regulatory oversight for BSE
issues. APHIS had already used the "gold standard" diagnostic
immunohistochemistry test, which was originally developed by ARS. But
for the first U.S. case of BSE, APHIS wanted additional scientific
information that could be provided by the Western blot test.

So APHIS put in a high-priority call to veterinary medical officer
Juergen Richt and his colleagues at the Virus and Prion Diseases of
Livestock Laboratory, which is part of ARS's National Animal Disease
Center (NADC) in Ames, Iowa.

"We had experience with the Western blot test and we had all the
reagents on hand," explains Richt. "So we put our holiday plans on hold
and got everything ready so that APHIS would have verification of the
results from the immunohistochemistry test." ........... snip

full text;

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/dec04/tse1204.htm
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/dec04/

TSS

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. wrote:

> ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
> #####################
>
> Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse
>
> Location:
>
>
>
> Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock
>
>
> Project Number: 3625-32000-073-07
> Project Type: Specific C/A
>
> Start Date: Sep 15, 2004
> End Date: Sep 14, 2007
>
> Objective:
> The objective of this cooperative research project with Dr. Maria
> Caramelli from the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory in Turin, Italy,
> is to conduct comparative studies with the U.S. bovine spongiform
> encephalopathy (BSE) isolate and the atypical BSE isolates identified
> in Italy. The studies will cover the following areas: 1. Evaluation of
> present diagnostics tools used in the U.S. for the detection of
> atypical BSE cases. 2. Molecular comparison of the U.S. BSE isolate
> and other typical BSE isolates with atypical BSE cases. 3. Studies on
> transmissibility and tissue distribution of atypical BSE isolates in
> cattle and other species.
>
> Approach:
> This project will be done as a Specific Cooperative Agreement with the
> Italian BSE Reference Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico
> Sperimentale del Piemonte, in Turin, Italy. It is essential for the
> U.S. BSE surveillance program to analyze the effectiveness of the U.S
> diagnostic tools for detection of atypical cases of BSE. Molecular
> comparisons of the U.S. BSE isolate with atypical BSE isolates will
> provide further characterization of the U.S. BSE isolate. Transmission
> studies are already underway using brain homogenates from atypical BSE
> cases into mice, cattle and sheep. It will be critical to see whether
> the atypical BSE isolates behave similarly to typical BSE isolates in
> terms of transmissibility and disease pathogenesis. If transmission
> occurs, tissue distribution comparisons will be made between cattle
> infected with the atypical BSE isolate and the U.S. BSE isolate.
> Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations
> regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.
>
> http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=408490
>
>> Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations
>> regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.
>
>
>
>

snip...end

full text ;

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

It was, however, performed in the USA in 1979, when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic in the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of Agriculture in Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE. 32 The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of Agriculture. 33 The results were not published at this point, since the attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre. 34 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent, though pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of brain lesions characteristic of BSE.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm

Visit to USA ... info on BSE and Scrapie

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1988/10/00001001.pdf

WHY is USA insisting _now_ not to use WB, when on the 1st _confirmed_ case Dec. 23, 2003
USA mad cow, WB was used ???

maybe this is the reason ;

JAPAN BSE # 8 & 9 cow

8. 6/10/2003 Holstein Steer 13/10/2001 23 mths
No clinical signs WB+, IHC-, HP-


9. 4/11/2003 Holstein Steer 13/1/2002
21 mths No clinical signs WB+, IHC-, HP-

===========

More information on the first 11 Japanese BSE-cases can be found on the website of the Japanese Embassy in the US:

http://www.us.emb-japan.go.jp/english/html/fafacts/bse/bse.htm

it's gonna be a long year........

TSS

######### https://listserv.kaliv.uni-karlsruhe.de/warc/bse-l.html ##########

Nebraska Outdoor Forum: View Recent Posts: TSS

http://www.ngpc.state.ne.us/cgi-bin/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=recent_user_posts;u=00001734

mad cow candy bar. dont laugh, believe me, they exist;


NATURAL COCOA STANDARDBAR (mad cow candy bar)
(i will just list animal organs)
bovine adrenal, bovine liver, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, bovine kidney...

NATURAL PEANUT BUTTER STANDARDBAR

bovine adrenal, bovine liver, bovine spleen, ovine spleen, bovine kidney...

USF (MAD COW) OINTMENT (RUB A DUB DUB, KURU ETC) ;

bovine orhic glandular extract

UTROPHIN PMG

bovine uterus PMG

VASCULIN

bovine heart PMG extract, veal bone PMG extract, bovine liever, porcine
duodenum,
bovine adrenal Cytosol extract, bovine spleen, ovine spleen (some yummy
stuff)

IPLEX (neighbors mom died from CJD while taking these pills for years)

bovine eye PMG extract, veal bone PMG, bovine liver, porcine stomach,
bovine adrenal,
bovine kidney, bovine adrenal Cytosol extract, BOVINE BRAIN, bovine
bone, veal bone
meal

MYO-PLUS

bovine heart PMG, bovine liver, porcine stomach, bovine orchic extract,
bovine
spleen, ovine spleen, bovine adrenal Cytosol extract, BOVINE BRAIN

NEUROPLEX

bovine orchic Cytosol extract, bovine spleen, BOVINE BRAIN PMG EXTRACT,
BOVINE ANTERIOR PITUITARY, bovine liver, BOVINE PITUITARY PMG EXTRACT,
AND MORE BOVINE BRAIN... HOLY MAD COW IN A PILL !!!

NEUROTROPHIN PMG

BOVINE BRAIN PMG

NIACINAMIDE B6 VM

bovine liver, porcine stomach, bovine spleen ovine spleen,
BOVINE BRAIN

OCULOTROPHIN PMG
BOVINE EYE PMG

ORCHEX

bovine liver, bovine orchic Cytosol extract, porcine stomch,
bovine spleen, ovine spleen, BOVINE BRAIN

OSTARPLEX

veal bone PMG extract, veal bone PMG extract, bovine liver,
porcine stomach, bovine adrenal, bovine spleen, ovine spleen,
BOVINE BRAIN

PARAPLEX

bovine pancreas PMG extract, porcine duodenum, bovine adrenal PMG,
BOVINE PITUITARY PMG EXTRACT, bovine thyroid PMG extract

PITUITROPHIN PMG

RUMAPLEX

BOVINE BRAIN, veal bone PMG extract, bovine adrenal, bovine prostate
Cytosol extract, veal bone meal, bovine liver PMG extract, bovine spleen,
ovine spleen, bovine liver

SENAPLEX

bovine liver PMG extract, bovine adrenal, BOVNE BRAIN, veal bone meal,
bovine
kidney, bovine orchic extract, bovine spleen, ovine spleen ..........

THESE are just a few of MANY of just this ONE COMPANY...TSS

Docket Management Docket: 96N-0417 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice
in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients a
Comment Number: EC -2
Accepted - Volume 7

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Mar03/031403/96N-0417-EC-2.htm


Paul Brown once said that he might be more worried about humans eating sh!t like this and then donating blood, as opposed to someone in the UK delivering blood...TSS


I HAVE STRAYED FROM WHERE I WAS GOING, i do this sometimes and get folks confused. let me know when you are ready for more. ...TSS


terri,

for instance, in your article;

"Because we are handling this matter in partnership with the United States Department of Agriculture there are a number of documents that have claims of being confidential under federal law," Snelson said in an e-mail to the Chronicle. "We have notified our USDA that we have documents for which they may want to assert a privilege as being confidential and requesting their comments."

The issue will be decided by the Texas Attorney General's Office.

Snelson said the fact that the records involve a mad cow makes the records more worthy of protection - because of the negative connotation the disease carries.

========

Snelson should have to witness this agent in humans.
plus it would help to educate them on the topic of sporadic CJD. sporadic CJD is a human TSE of unknown origin, but very well could be a TSE from consumption. i can send you some data on the false hypothosis of the spontaneous TSE if you like, later. we have a new TSE in cattle called BASE. very similar to sporadic CJD;


new findings of BASE in cattle in Italy of Identification of a
second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular
similarities with sporadic

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1


also, these documents proves worthy of bring up to the public. scrapie has been around for hundreds of years,
so has human TSE as sporadic CJD documented since
the 20s, scrapie transmits to primates, no transmission study has ever been done on humans. scrapie is rampant in TEXAS and the USA, with CWD at our door steps;

Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates
and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for
human health

THE findings from Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*,
Virginie Nouvel*,

Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger

] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique

Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent responsible
for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is
very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of
sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1

Characterization of two distinct prion strains
derived from bovine spongiform encephalopathy
transmissions to inbred mice

http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/8/2471


SCRAPIE USA MONTHLY REPORT 2005

AS of March 31, 2005, there were 70 scrapie infected source flocks (Figure 3). There were 11 new infected and source flocks reported in March (Figure 4) with a total of 51 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 39 (Figure 6), with 1 flock released in March. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.76 : 1. IN addition, as of March 31, 2005, 225 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 53 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in March 2005 (Figure 8). Fourteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat cases was reported in January 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released or put on clean-up plans for FY 2005 are depicted in Figure 10. ...

FULL TEXT ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html

WITH the MAY report, a scrapie case documented in a GOAT IN THE USA...TSS

SCRAPIE USA UPDATE MAY 2005


SCRAPIE has increased drastically since the report i posted in March 2005, with additional case in a goat;


SCRAPIE USA MONTHLY REPORT 2005

AS of March 31, 2005, there were 70 scrapie infected source flocks (Figure 3). There were 11 new infected and source flocks reported in March (Figure 4) with a total of 51 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 39 (Figure 6), with 1 flock released in March. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.76 : 1. IN addition, as of March 31, 2005, 225 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 53 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in March 2005 (Figure 8). Fourteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat cases was reported in January 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released or put on clean-up plans for FY 2005 are depicted in Figure 10. ...

FULL TEXT ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html

CWD USA UPDATE

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/cwd/cwd-distribution.html

Press Releases
5/13/2005: More Negatives for Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Heards Learn More

5/9/2005: Negative Results for Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Herd Learn More

5/4/2005: DEC Announces Sampling Results for Chronic Wasting Disease Learn More

4/29/2005: DEC Issues Emergency Regulations in Response to Discovery of Chronic Wasting Disease. Learn More

4/27/2005: Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Oneida County Deer. Learn More.

4/21/2005: DEC Releases Results of Tests for Chronic Wasting Disease. Learn More.

4/13/2005: DEC to Test For Chronic Wasting Disease in Hamilton County. Learn More.

4/8/2005: Chronic Wasting Disease Update: Test Results Reveal Three Additional Positives From Index Herd. Learn More.

4/5/2005: Chronic Wasting Disease Update. Learn More.

4/2/2005: Second Case of CWD Found in Oneida County Deer. Learn More.

3/31/2005: Positive Case of CWD Found in Oneida County Deer. Learn More.

Transcript from March 31 Press Conference Regarding First Case of CWD in NewYork State

If you have difficulty opening the PDF files, please contact the Department of Agriculture & Markets.


http://www.agmkt.state.ny.us/AI/cwd.html

snip...

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################


From: TSS ()
Subject: New Mexico DEER COULD BE STATE’S 12TH CASE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE
Date: July 7, 2005 at 10:47 am PST

New Mexico Department of Game and Fish
Contact: Dan Williams, (505) 476-8004
dan.williams@state.nm.us


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, JULY 5, 2005:

DEER COULD BE STATE’S 12TH CASE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

DEER COULD BE STATE’S 12TH CASE OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE


SANTA FE – A mule deer that died in the southern New Mexico mountain
community of Timberon in early June
probably had chronic wasting disease, according to initial tests at the
Colorado State University laboratory.
If test results are confirmed, the deer will be New Mexico’s 12th case of
the disease since 2002, when CWD was
first discovered in a deer at the housing complex at White Sands Missile
Range east of Las Cruces. The
Timberon deer also would be the first CWD-infected deer found outside the
general area of the Organ Mountains.
Timberon is in the Sacramento Mountains about 25 miles southeast of
Alamogordo and 50 miles from the Organ
Mountains where CWD previously had been found. Pending final verification of
the analysis, the new CWD case
may prompt requirements for special handling of deer and elk carcasses
during the upcoming hunting season in
parts of southern New Mexico.
Chronic Wasting Disease causes animals to become emaciated, display abnormal
behavior, lose control of bodily
functions and die. The disease has been found in wild deer and elk, and in
captive deer and elk, in eight states
and two Canadian provinces. There currently is no evidence of CWD being
transmitted to humans or livestock.
The origin of the disease in New Mexico is unknown.
The Timberon deer was an old doe in very poor physical condition, which
prompted concerned residents to call
the Department of Game and Fish. The deer died before officers could find
it. Tissue samples were sent to the
CSU laboratory, which verbally reported a CWD-positive test on June 29.
For more information about chronic wasting disease and how hunters can
assist in research and prevention
efforts, visit the Department web site at www.wildlife.state.nm.us.


http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/publications/press_releases/documents/7-05_r
eleases.pdf


TSS
----- Original Message -----
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To:
Sent: Monday, June 27, 2005 6:51 PM
Subject: CWD TWO NEW CASES NEAR WHITE SANDS MISSLE RANGE NEW MEXICO


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
#####################

From: TSS ()
Subject: CWD TWO NEW CASES NEAR WHITE SANDS MISSLE RANGE NEW MEXICO
Date: June 27, 2005 at 4:43 pm PST

New Mexico Department of Game and Fish

Contact: Dan Williams, (505) 476-8004

dan.williams@state.nm.us

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, JUNE 24, 2005:

TWO MULE DEER TEST POSITIVE FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

ANGLER LANDS STATE RECORD BLUE CATFISH AT ELEPHANT BUTTE LAKE

TWO MULE DEER TEST POSITIVE FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

SANTA FE – Two mule deer captured in the Organ Mountains as part of an
ongoing research project near White

Sands Missile Range have tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD),
a fatal neurological disease that

attacks the brains of infected deer and elk, the Department of Game and Fish
announced.

The number of confirmed CWD cases in New Mexico now stands at 11 since 2002,
when the disease was first

confirmed in a deer found near the eastern foothills of the Organ Mountains.
All 11 CWD-infected deer were found

in the same general area of southern New Mexico. The origin of the disease
in New Mexico remains unknown.

The carcasses of the infected deer will be incinerated, said Kerry Mower,
the Department’s lead wildlife disease

biologist.

Chronic wasting disease causes animals to become emaciated, display abnormal
behavior, lose bodily functions

and die. The disease has been found in wild deer and elk, and in captive
deer and elk, in eight states and two

Canadian provinces. There currently is no evidence of CWD being transmitted
to humans or livestock.

Mower said the most recent CWD-positive deer showed no obvious physical
signs of having the disease. They

were captured in April 2005 and tested as part of a 3-year-old research
project studying deer population dynamics

in southern New Mexico. More than 140 deer have been captured alive and
tested for the study, in which

researchers hope to find the cause of a 10-year decline in the area deer
population. Study participants include the

Department of Game and Fish, the U.S. Army at White Sands Missile Range and
Fort Bliss, Bureau of Land

Management, U.S. Geological Survey at New Mexico State University, and San
Andres National Wildlife Refuge.

Hunters can assist the Department in its CWD research and prevention efforts
by bringing their fresh, legally

harvested deer or elk head to an area office, where officers will remove the
brain stem for testing. Participants will

be eligible for drawings for an oryx hunt on White Sands Missile Range and a
trophy elk hunt on the Valle Vidal.

For more information about the drawing and chronic wasting disease, visit
the Department web site at

www.wildlife.state.nm.us.

http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/publications/press_releases/documents/0624CW
Dandcatfish.pdf

SEE MAP ;

http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/conservation/disease/cwd/documents/cwdmap.pd
f

Greetings list members,


I am deeply concerned with these CWD mad deer so close to the Texas border.
WHAT keeps them from crossing the border to Texas ??? IF these illegal
aliens can so easily cross our borders, why not these infected deer? maybe
we should get these minute men to start watching for mad deer coming in to
Texas from New Mexico.

I mentioned my concerns several other times before;


-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Current status of CWD testing in Texas
Date: Tue, 10 May 2005 09:09:47 -0500
From: "kschwaus"
To:


Mr. Singeltary,


I was asked to provide you with the following information. If you have any
other questions regarding CWD sampling in Texas, please do not hesitate to
give me a call. My office number is below.


Below I have included a chart showing CWD samples that have been tested
since the fall of 2002 through the present at the eco-region level. The
second chart shows the totals on a given year. The unknown location samples
come from private individuals sending in samples directly to the Texas
Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab (TVMDL). Due to the confidentiality laws
that the TVMDL operates under, they are unable to provide TPWD with the
location of those samples.


Region
Population Estimate

Sampling from Fall 2002 to Present


Pineywoods

502,521

975

Gulf Prairie

90,664

441

Post Oak Savannah

291,119

1146

Black Land Prairies

54,505

153

Cross Timbers

441,031

1015

Edwards Plateau

1,608,390

1618

South Texas Plains

500,183

1253

Rolling Plains

231,358

352

High Plains

49,981

81

Trans Pecos

148,174

173

Unknown Location


1,896

Total

3,917,926

9,103


Samples Collected By

2002-03

2003-04

2004-Present

TPWD

1,722

2,955

2,540

Private (unknown location)

326

608

952

Total

2,048

3,563

3,492


Thank you,


Kevin Schwausch

Big Game Program Specialist

Texas Parks & Wildlife Department

PO Box 1394

Burnet, TX 78611

512-756-4476


===============================

I would like to thank Kevin and TPWD for there prompt reply
with updated data.

I am still concerned about the Texas, New Mexico border and
New Mexico's apparent lack of CWD testing updates. Makes one
wonder about there CWD testing program. NO report/reply back
from New Mexico about there CWD testing update yet. ...

TSS

===================


-------- Original Message --------
Subject: CWD SURVEILLANCE TEXAS UPDATE (kinda)
Date: Mon, 9 May 2005 14:52:48 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
To: BSE-L@aegee.org


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

IMPLEMENTATION OF A GEOGRAPHICALLY FOCUSED CWD SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM FOR
FREE-RANGING CERVIDS

A geographically-focused free-ranging cervid Monitoring Program was
implemented during the fall 2002 deer-hunting season. Brain stem samples
from hunter-killed deer will be obtained from TPWD Wildlife Management
Areas (WMA), State Parks, and where otherwise available with hunter
and/or landowner permission, from deer taken on private land. Volume 1,
Sixth Edition of United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and
Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Regulatory
Statistics (Appendix D1
)
indicates that 148 samples is sufficient to detect disease at two
per-cent prevalence, regardless of the population size. Therefore the
goal is to acquire 148 samples from each of the State's ten ecoregions
provided adequate sampling distribution is achieved across each
ecoregion. The five year 2002 -2006, goal is to cumulatively collect 459
samples from each of the ten ecoregions. The cumulative sample would be
used statistically to detect CWD at one per-cent prevalence level with
99 per-cent confidence. However, funding from APHIS/USDA could provide
the necessary funds for sampling at the one per-cent prevalence level
each year. TAHC conducted a risk assessment of counties where deer and
elk have been imported and where high densities of free-ranging deer
occur. The assessment was conducted for USDA funding consideration. The
risk assessment was based on limited number of criteria. Since CWD could
potentially occur anywhere in Texas, monitoring efforts would be focused
to achieve a stratified sampling scheme across each ecoregion of the State.

Confidentiality laws restrict the type of data TPWD personnel can
collect as it relates to a specific parcel of land. Therefore, personnel
will ensure that no property specific information is collected (i.e.
ranch name or exact location) without the landowner's written
permission. The following are guidelines for data and sample collection
distributed to TPWD personnel prior to sample collection:

1. A Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) Accession
Form must be submitted with brain stem samples.
2. The most important items to be filled out are the TPWD employee
name, address and phone number, and "Patient/Deer ID". County of
Kill can be recorded on the bottom of the form, but DO NOT report
any information that identifies the specific parcel of land.
3. The "Patient/Deer ID" number MUST BE specific to the field data
sheet the employee is using to record data.
4. Specific CWD field data sheets will not be provided, as current
field data sheets (i.e. Age/Weight Antler Data Sheets, Hunter
Check Station Data Sheets, etc.) will be appropriate in most
cases. Field staff may produce their own CWD data sheet if necessary.
5. The field data sheet must contain:
1. Employee Name
2. Sample Number (same as Patient/Deer ID on TVMDL Accession Form
3. Sample Date
4. Deer Age
5. Deer Sex
6. County of Kill
7. Hunter Name
8. Hunting License Number
9. Ranch name or tract name/location ONLY with landowner
permission.
6. Should a CWD positive be detected, TAHC will use hunter contact
information to conduct CWD investigation under their regulatory
authority.
7. Make sure the container containing the brain stem sample is
legibly identified with the sample number, deer age and sex,
county of kill and date. Although the sample number is all that is
needed, additional information will help resolve any problems
should batches of samples be combined.
8. Should a landowner retain deer heads for our sampling purposes,
remind the landowner to issue the hunters a proof of sex document
as provided for in TAHC 65.10 (c). In addition, a Wildlife
resource document (PWD 905) must accompany the head until the
carcass reaches a final destination and finally processed.
9. Samples MAY NOT be taken from legally harvested deer without the
hunter's consent.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/imp
lementation/


ACTIONS SHOULD A CWD POSITIVE BE DETECTED

Should sampling detect a CWD positive animal, TAHC and TPWD would
activate the Media Response Plan (Appendix F
).
TAHC and TPWD would immediately begin review of the information at hand
and determine the action to be taken within the Response Plan (Appendix
C
.)
The first action should be to inform landowners adjacent to the property
containing the CWD positive and hold a meeting with advisory committees
and affected landowner to discuss plans for secondary sampling. Planning
for secondary sampling, investigating movements of deer into and away
from property for further actions would then be the next step. The
secondary sampling is critical for determining distribution and
prevalence of the disease.

As distribution and prevalence is being determined, information review
and discussions with TPWD advisory committees (e.g., Private Lands
Advisory Board, Hunting Advisory Committee, White-tailed Deer Advisory
Committee etc.) and landowners would take place in order to determine
the appropriate management action to be taken.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/det
ection/


APPENDIX A: Results of CWD Sampling

Sampling and testing results for CWD from June, 2002 to April 1, 2003
are presented below:

Sampling and testing results for CWD from June, 2002 to April 1, 2003
TPWD TAHC Private Sector
1349 CWD Negative Deer 335 CWD Negative Deer 336 CWD Negative Deer
23 CWD Negative Exotics No Exotics No Exotics
1372 Total 335 Total 336 Total

The Grand Total of all samples collected and known 4/1/03 is 2043 of
which 2020 deer and 23 exotics were found CWD negative. Samples were
collected from 143 of 254 counties in Texas, and seven counties had 50
or more samples collected. Five ecoregions had 160 or more samples
collected (150 samples from each ecoregion was the goal). The geographic
distribution of sampling is currently not considered adequate for
determining whether or not CWD exists in Texas (see map pg. 15). The
goal is to improve upon distribution of samples collected within
ecoregions and within counties. The goal of 2003-2004 and the next three
to five years, is to collect 5000 samples (500 from each ecoregion) each
sample year. The increased sampling is to have a 99 per-cent confidence
level in detecting CWD if only one per-cent of the population is
infected. Long-term surveillance sampling for CWD is required, as little
is known about the incubation and infectious periods of the disease.

fig1AppendixA (18K)

SEE MAP OF TEXAS CWD TESTING

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/ima
ges/fig1AppendixA.png

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/app
endix_a/


APPENDIX B: Chronic Wasting Disease - Status of Current Knowledge


Occurrence and Distribution

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy, which is a disease that alters the structure of the
brain, in a way that resembles a sponge-like appearance and texture.
Much is not known about CWD, including its origin, exact mode of
transmission, and the causative or etiological agent. The source of CWD
may be related in some way to scrapie in domestic sheep; it may
"represent a spontaneous, naturally occurring" form of this disease in
cervids thought to be caused by a "low virus infection." A more
plausible theory is that CWD is caused by a point mutation of a
membrane-bound protein resulting in accumulations of
proteinase-resistant proteins called "prions" in the brain (medulla
oblongata), tonsils (in deer only), and lymphoid tissue.

The only known long-term distribution of CWD in free-ranging susceptible
cervids includes two contiguous local areas in northeastern Colorado and
southeastern Wyoming. Up to 15% and less than 1% prevalence were
reported for mule deer and elk, respectively, in certain management
units. Two cases of CWD occurred in mule deer in the southwestern corner
of the panhandle of Nebraska, which is close to the endemic area of
Colorado and Wyoming. Both of these latter animals were close enough to
have originated from the endemic area. More recently, CWD was diagnosed
in deer in Nebraska within and outside a fenced pasture of a captive
operation where elk were diagnosed with the disease. Infections in
captive elk also have been documented in Colorado, Wyoming, Montana,
Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Kansas. In early 2002, CWD was detected in
free-ranging white-tailed deer in South Dakota and Wisconsin, later the
disease was found in breeder pens in northern Wisconsin. Cases of CWD
have been documented in captive elk and free ranging mule deer in
Saskatchewan and Ontario as well. New Mexico discovered CWD in a
free-ranging mule deer on the White Sands Missile Range, Minnesota found
CWD in a captive elk herd, Illinois detected CWD in a free-ranging
white-tailed deer and an infected white-tailed deer was found in a
breeding facility in Alberta.


Incubation, Transmission, and Clinical Course of CWD

Incubation time, that time from infection to appearance of clinical
signs, typically is less than 2 years (18-24 months). However,
incubation time can be variable and ranges up to 36 months. The exact
mode of transmission of CWD is unknown; however, circumstantial and
experimental data indicate horizontal (or lateral) transmission in
captive susceptible cervids, either by direct animal-to-animal contact
or by environmental contamination. For susceptible cervids, the routes
of transmission are presumed to be by exposure to saliva, urine, feces,
or placental tissue, with infection occurring through the alimentary
canal (mouth/nose - esophagus - stomach - intestines). If this
transmission mode is confirmed for free-ranging deer or elk, it could
potentially exacerbate the risk of infection. In contrast to outbreaks
of mad cow disease, where exposure to animal protein-contaminated feed
was documented, this has not been the case for captive or wild cervids
infected with CWD. Presently, feed contamination is not considered a
likely underlying transmission mechanism. Whereas, the importance of
maternal transmission (mother to fetus or nursing young) as a mode of
scrapie transmission in domestic sheep has at least been debated, its
importance relative to CWD persistence in captive and wild cervid herds
has been contraindicated thus far by current reports. Although the route
of agent shedding from infected individuals is presently unknown, it is
believed that the rate of agent shedding may very well increase as the
disease progresses. Thus far, evidence also indicates that there is no
difference between males and females or across age classes in
susceptibility to CWD.

Importantly, natural transmission of TSEs (i.e., BSE, CWD) between
domesticated bovines (i.e., cattle, bison), sheep and cervids has not
been documented. Deer, domestic cattle and sheep have been
experimentally inoculated with brain tissue containing (PrP(res)) from
CWD - infected mule deer, and 2 years later, only the deer have become
infected with CWD. However, healthy deer have been inoculated with brain
tissue from scrapie-infected sheep, and the deer developed spongiform
encephalopathy.

The clinical course of CWD is about 12 months. That is, once clinical
signs are apparent, cervids rarely survive more than 12 months. Chronic
wasting disease is a progressive, fatal disease, with no vaccine to
prevent the disease or treatment for reversing the disease (recovery),
and there is no evidence of immunity. There has been no effective,
practical ante mortem (live-animal) test for diagnosis until recently; a
live-test for deer (not elk) involving tonsil biopsy and
immunohistochemical analysis for (PrR (res)) accumulation has
demonstrated promise, and may be more sensitive than the post-mortem
analysis of the obex of the medulla oblongata in the brain. The
practicality of this test remains to be decided.


Clinical Signs of CWD

All signs or symptoms of CWD do not occur in all cases, and many of
these signs are symptoms of other diseases and conditions as well.
Further, the occurrence and severity of symptoms will depend in part on
the stage (early versus advanced) of the disease. Below is a
comprehensive list of the clinical signs of CWD: (1) loss of fear of
humans; (2) nervousness or hyper-excitability; (3) teeth-grinding; (4)
ataxia or loss of coordination; (5) notable weakness; (6)
intractability; (7) inability to stand; (8) rough dull hair coat; (9)
excessive salivation; (10) flaccid, hypotonia of the facial muscles;
(11) drooping of the head and ears; (12) excessive thirst (polydipsia);
(13) excessive urination (polyuria); (14) esophageal hypotonia and
dilation, difficulty swallowing, and regurgitating ruminal fluid and
ingesta; and (15) severe emaciation and dehydration.

It is important to note that while some primary symptoms may be directly
related to CWD, others may be secondary, more of a consequence of the
deteriorating body condition (emaciation) and related physiology (e.g.,
pneumonia, abscesses, enteritis, or internal parasitism that may often
cause emaciation).


Pathological Signs of CWD

Pathological signs of the disease include: (1) emaciation associated
with absence or serous atrophy of subcutaneous and visceral adipose
tissue or fat, and yellow gelatinous bone marrow; (2) sub acute to
chronic bronchopneumonia; (3) digestive tract (abomasal or omasal)
ulcers; (4) enlarged adrenal glands; (5) watery or frothy rumen
contents; and (6) histological lesions. These lesions have primarily and
most consistently been observed in the brain and spinal cord. (7)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is very sensitive and specific to CWD and is
typically used to confirm diagnoses by measuring accumulations of
proteinase-resistant prion protein (PrP(res)) in brain tissues
(specifically in the obex of the medulla oblongata) of infected deer and
elk. This prion protein is indistinguishable from the scrapie-associated
prion protein (PrP(Sc)) found in brain tissues of domestic sheep
infected with scrapie, but other differences have been noted. (PrP(res))
has not been detected in uninfected cervids. This test can detect CWD
infection before lesions are observable; however, IHC (+) results are
not detected until at least three months after infection. Lesions do not
always accompany (PrP(res)) accumulation and IHC (+) results. (8)
Scrapie associated fibrils (SAFs) have been observed by electron
microscopy in the brain tissue of infected cervids, but not in
uninfected cervids. (9) Generally, blood (whole blood and serum) and
urine profiles have remained within the normal range, with the exception
that certain characteristics have reflected the emaciated condition of
the infected animals. Low specific gravity of the urine, is the one
urine characteristic that may be directly related to CWD, specifically
to degenerative encephalopathic changes in the hypothalamus. The
hypothalamus is important in regulating anti diuretic hormone, which
influences concentrations of urinary electrolytes (e.g., Na) and
osmolality.


http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/app
endix_b/


APPENDIX C: Importation of Susceptible Cervids

On March 20, 2002, the Texas Animal Health Commission, and Texas Parks
and Wildlife Commission issued separate orders to prohibit the entry of
all elk, white-tailed deer, black-tailed deer, and mule deer into Texas.

On August 25, 2002, Texas Animal Health Commission adopted entry
requirements for black-tailed deer, elk, or other cervid species
determined to be susceptible to CWD. All mule deer and white-tailed deer
held under authority of Scientific Breeder Permits are also required to
obtain a purchase permit and, in some cases, a transport permit from
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department in order to enter the state. All
requests for entry must be made in writing and accompanied with the
information necessary to support import qualification of the animal(s).
Requests for entry and supporting documentation should be received by
the TAHC at least 10 working days prior to the proposed entry date. The
processing of the application can be expedited by assuring that all of
the necessary documentation has been provided and that the necessary
staff is available for review. The application must be accompanied by an
owner's statement stating that to his/her knowledge the animals (or
donor animals) to be imported have never come in contact with equipment
or resided on a premise where CWD was ever diagnosed.

Entry Requirements: The applicant must identify the herd of origin and
the herd of destination on both the permit application and the
certificate of veterinary inspection. The susceptible cervid(s) to be
imported into this state, shall be identified to their herd of origin by
a minimum of two official/approved unique identifiers to include, but
not limited to, legible tattoo, USDA approved ear tag, breed
registration or other state approved permanent identification methods.
If a microchip is used for identification, the owner shall provide the
necessary reader. A certificate of veterinary inspection completed by an
accredited veterinarian shall accompany the shipment. Additionally, the
herd of origin must meet the following criteria:

1. In states where there is a state approved CWD monitoring program
which meets the requirements provided in Section D of Appendix C
(below) and where CWD has not been identified in a susceptible
species, then all elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and
black-tailed deer to be imported must originate from a herd that
has been in a state-approved complete herd certification program
for a minimum of three years (or current federal standards).
2. From states which do not have a CWD monitoring program which
meets the standards provided in Section D of Appendix C (below)
and where CWD has not been identified in a susceptible species,
then all elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and black-tailed deer
shall originate from herds that have complete herd records,
including, but not limited to, complete and detailed herd
inventories, records of deaths, laboratory results, and sales and
purchase receipts, for a minimum of five years. Complete documents
which support this type of status shall be submitted with the
permit application.
3. In states where CWD has been identified in a susceptible species,
then elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and black-tailed deer (or
other susceptible species) to be imported must originate from a
herd that has been in a state-approved complete herd monitoring
program, as provided in Section D of Appendix C (below) for a
minimum of five years.
4. A state-approved chronic wasting disease monitoring program must
be certified by the Texas State Veterinarian as meeting the
following minimum standards:
1. In states where CWD has been found in free-ranging wildlife,
the state program shall have perimeter fencing requirements
adequate to prevent ingress, egress or contact with
susceptible cervids.
2. Surveillance based on testing of susceptible cervid deaths
over 16 months of age is required of all herds within a
complete herd monitoring program. Surveillance sampling at
commercial slaughter and at shooter operations should be at
least 10 percent of the number slaughtered annually.
3. A good quality sampling program where state and federal
officials have the authority to adjust herd status if poor
quality samples, particularly samples that are from the
wrong portion of the brain, are routinely submitted from a
premise. Laboratory analysis of the brain stem by United
States Department of Agriculture (USDA) approved lab is
recognized as the current standard for CWD diagnosis. Other
laboratory analyses may be accepted as validated or accepted
by USDA/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).
4. Physical herd inventory with annual verification reconciling
animals and identification with records by an accredited
veterinarian or state or federal personnel is required.
Inventory is to include a cross check of all animal
identifications with the herd inventory and specific
information on the disposition of all animals not present.
5. Premise locations must be specifically identified by GIS or
detailed description during the initial herd inventory.
6. Herd additions are allowed from herds with equal or greater
time in an approved state CWD monitoring program with no
negative impact on the certification status of the receiving
herd. If herd additions are acquired from a herd with a
later date of enrollment, the receiving herd reverts to the
enrollment date of the sending herd. If a herd participating
in the monitoring program acquires animals from a
non-participating herd, the receiving herd must start over
with new enrollment date based upon the date of acquisition
of the animal(s). If a new herd begins with animals of a
given status, that status will be retained by the new herd,
based upon the lowest status of the animals received.
Animals of different status which are commingled during
marketing or transport will revert to the lowest status.
7. Elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer and black-tailed deer will
only be allowed to enter the state of Texas if the state of
origin lists CWD as a reportable disease and imposes an
immediate quarantine on a herd and/or premise when a CWD
positive animal is disclosed.
8. Animal health officials in the state of origin must have
access to herd records for the appropriate number of years
(three to five), including records of deaths and causes of
death.
9. Section D also addresses entry requirements as they pertain
to tuberculosis testing. However, these requirements are not
included as a part of the Texas Chronic Wasting Disease
Management Plan.

At the November 2002 meeting the TPWD Commission adopted regulations, to
suspend the ban on importation of mule deer and white-tailed deer and
provide for importation under TAHC requirements. Additionally, the TPW
Commission adopted changes to Trap, Transportation, and Transplant
rules, which will require a sample of deer to be tested for CWD on any
property serving as a trap site for relocated deer. The rule sets forth
the minimum sample size, requires the sample to be tested 100% negative
by the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory and stipulates
that all deer transported be uniquely marked with an ear tattoo prior to
release.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/app
endix_c/


APPENDIX D: Response Plan for CWD If Detected

1. If the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory reports a
CWD positive test, the suspect sample will be immediately shipped
to USDA Laboratory at Ames, Iowa for conformation of positive
finding. The time between initial suspect finding and Ames Lab
confirmation will be used to mobilize staff and groups for
response plan initiation.
2. The confirmation notice of a positive would come through the USDA
Veterinary Services Office in Austin, and USDA/VS personnel would
be part of the response effort.
3. Governor's Office will be notified of the finding, as well as
Commission members of both TAHC and TPWD.
4. CWD Media Response Plan will be activated (Appendix F
).

5. Source location of CWD positive concerns:
1. The source location of the CWD positive animal and
information about the area, landowners (to contact for
cooperative discussions on further sampling, review of
management plans), and the deer density within a 4-8 mile
radius will be determined.
2. Should the source location of the CWD positive be in a
Scientific Breeder facility or pen, TAHC will inform and
work cooperatively with the landowner. TAHC may elect to
monitor the herd with special conditions (i.e.
double-fencing) or negotiate indemnification (cap
established at $3000.00 for prime breeding animals) for
eradication of the herd.
6. GIS locations and mapping for sampling will be utilized.
7. TAHC and TPWD will inform and work cooperatively with landowners
and with landowner permission in the sample area that may be
affected.
8. TAHC would determine sampling requirements. Sample numbers and the
size of the area to be sampled will be determined based upon
population numbers and the statistically-based numbers required
for detecting CWD at a 2% prevalence level from "Regulatory
Statistics Volume 1, Sixth Edition" (See Appendix D1). The numbers
of animals to be sampled (projected at 150) would be collected
throughout an area from 64-1056 square miles and not from a single
property unless it is as large as the sample area around a
positive. A square mile is 640 acres, in areas where the herd
density is 1 deer per 5 acres an area of 64 square miles should
contain 8192 deer (128 deer per section) and less than 3 deer per
section will be sampled. In areas where the herd density is 1 deer
per 200 acres an area of 1056 square miles should contain 3379
deer (3.2 deer section) a deer per 7 sections would be sampled.
This sampling is not designed to reduce the population below
viability.
9. Sampling will be conducted at no cost to the landowner in a
cooperative manner to detect additional CWD positives, and
sampling around any additional positive finds, to determine
direction of spread, prevalence of the disease and to determine
distribution. Additional samples would be taken surrounding any
new positive to determine direction, but re-sampling again in an
area previously sampled would not be necessary.
10. Simultaneously with the sampling, a joint investigation into
movement of deer into or out of area will be conducted.
11. Identify geologic features or barriers, which may be used to limit
population distribution, will be determined.
12. After distribution is determined, reasonable, responsible, and
rational management strategies will be determined in association
with landowners and applied as situations dictate following
sampling activities, to include monitoring at appropriate
intervals, herd reduction as a possible strategy, and eradication
of local populations in limited appropriate circumstances.
Strategies for possible treatments will also be discussed and
reviewed with the TTT/MLDP Task Force/ White-tailed Deer Advisory
Committee and the Private Lands Advisory Board.
13. TPWD will collect and take samples from cervids and transport
sample to Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory for
analysis.
14. Options for CWD testing (i.e. ELISA test) within localities should
a CWD-positive be detected will be considered and evaluated. The
purpose would be to ensure reliable test results in a timely
manner within the local area providing little interruption to
hunting and recreation in the area.
15. TPWD must be prepared to make budget and personnel adjustments for
the sampling.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/app
endix_d/


APPENDIX D1

United States Department of Agriculture
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Veterinary Services


REGULATORY STATISTICS


Volume 1

Sixth Edition
June 1983
By Victor C. Beal, Jr.
Table 2 - NUMBER NEEDED TO TEST TO BE 95% CONFIDENT THAT THE DISEASE
WILL BE DETECTED IF PRESENT AT OR ABOVE FIVE LEVELS OF INCIDENCE OR
CONTAMINATION


SEE FUZZY MATH BELOW ;

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/app
endix_d1/


APPENDIX E: TAHC Rules for Monitoring CWD

Participating herds must have adequate perimeter fencing to prevent
ingress and egress of cervids. Collection and submission of appropriate
samples from all cases of mortality in animals over 16 months of age
will accomplish surveillance in participating herds. Exemptions are
provided for animals consigned to commercial slaughter operations with
state or federal meat inspection. An annual inventory in participating
herds shall be verified by a TAHC, USDA or accredited veterinarian. All
animals over one year of age shall be identified with an official ear
tag or other approved identification device. All animals less than one
year of age shall be officially identified on a change of ownership.

Herd status designation shall be assigned on the basis of the number of
years of participation provided that CWD is not confirmed in the herd:

1. Level A - One full year of participation.
2. Level B - Two to three years of participation.
3. Level C - Four to five years of participation.
4. Level D - Six years or more of participation.

Additions to Complete Monitored Herd:

1. Additions may originate from herds of equal or higher status with
no change in the status of the receiving herd.
2. Additions may originate from herds of lower status with the
receiving herd acquiring the lower status of the herd(s) involved.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/app
endix_e/


APPENDIX F: Media Response Plan

A deer tissue sample tests positive for CWD in Texas, then the TPWD and
TAHC officials have only a few hours to manage communication before news
reaches the public section.


Prior to Trigger Event, these items are complete and ready to go:

* Step-by-Step Media Response Plan
* Shell of news release announcing CWD find-Draft pending response
plan protocols being developed between TPWD and TAHC.
* Identify news media spokespersons with TPWD and TAHC in Austin
o TAHC: (512) 719-0700. Media Contact: Carla Everett.
Spokespersons: Dr. Ken Waldrup, Dr. Max Coates, Dr. Linda
Logan, Dr. Dan Baca, and Dr. Terry Conger.
o TPWD: (512) 389-8900. Media Contact: Steve Lightfoot.
Spokespersons: Robert L. Cook, Ron George, Clayton Wolf, and
Doug Humphreys
* Web site for news media and general public on CWD. Listings on
site include:
* FAQ/Q&A sheet with basic facts on CWD
o http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/
* Names/contact info for local/regional experts who can speak about
CWD in various regions of Texas.
* Streaming video of CWD educational video on Web for general public.
* Downloadable radio PSAs.
* High-resolution photos and video of animals with CWD.

Actions Needed:

* Gain a clear understanding of Texas operational plan for handling
CWD outbreak, including likely sequence of events from initial
find to confirmation, and approve policies concerning quarantines,
stoppage of intrastate animal movement, and designation of
infection zone for monitoring, sampling protocols and possible
depopulation plan.
* Effective communication planning hinges on our through
understanding of state's plan for dealing with a CWD outbreak.
* Obtain concurrence with media response plan from TAHC and TPWD.
* Make final these above-listed information instruments.


Trigger Event

Notification that a suspected case of CWD exists in Texas.

Notify media contacts at TAHC and TPWD.

* TAHC - Carla Everett, (512) 719-0700 or (800) 550-8242.
ceverett@tahc.state.tx.us
* TPWD - Steve Lightfoot, (512) 389-4701 or (512) 565-3680.
steve.lightfoot@tpwd.state.tx.us


Actions Needed:

* TAHC and TPWD confirm contacts and alternates, e-mail addresses,
cell phone numbers and office and home phone numbers provided to
Carla Everett and/or Steve Lightfoot for compilation, coordination
and distribution to agency leadership and involved personnel from
other entities.
* News release distributed to media, agency(s) personnel and
commissioners, affected stakeholder groups and constituents.
* News conference called, depending on level of media response.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

TEXAS OLD STATISTICS BELOW FOR PAST CWD TESTING;

Subject: CWD testing in Texas
Date: Sun, 25 Aug 2002 19:45:14 -0500
From: Kenneth Waldrup
To: flounder@wt.net
CC: mcoats@tahc.state.tx.us

Dear Dr. Singletary,
In Fiscal Year 2001, seven deer from Texas were tested by the National
Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for CWD (5 fallow deer and 2
white-tailed deer). In Fiscal Year 2002, seven elk from Texas were
tested at NVSL (no deer). During these two years, an additional six elk
and one white-tailed deer were tested at the Texas Veterinary Medical
Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL). In Fiscal Year 2002, four white-tailed
deer (free-ranging clinical suspects) and at least eight other
white-tailed deer have been tested at TVMDL. One elk has been tested at
NVSL. All of these animals have been found negative for CWD. Dr. Jerry
Cooke of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department also has records of 601
clinically ill white-tailed deer which were necropsied at Texas A&M
during the late 1960's and early 1970's, and no spongiform
encepalopathies were noted.
Thank you for your consideration.

Ken Waldrup, DVM, PhD
Texas Animal Health Commission
========================


TEXAS CWD STATUS


Captive Cervids

There have been no reported CWD infections of captive elk or deer in
Texas. There is currently no mandatory surveillance program for
susceptible cervids kept on game farms, although, there has been
voluntary surveillance since 1999, which requires owners of
participating herds to maintain an annual herd inventory and submit
samples for all mortalities of animals over 16 months of age.


Free-Ranging (Wild) Cervids

There have been no reported CWD infections of free-ranging susceptible
cervids in Texas. Currently targeted surveillance of free-ranging
cervids having clinical symptoms is ongoing in Texas with no positives
identified. Additionally, sampling of hunter-killed animals was
initiated statewide during the 2002-2003 deer hunting season and
sampling will be continued for the next three to five years.


Historic Status

Some have speculated that CWD is "spontaneous" and may exist naturally
at low levels, even in Texas. The Texas Wildlife Disease Project, a
cooperative research project between TPWD and Texas A&M University
(circa 1965-1975), was created to address two disease issues; a) low
reproduction in Texas pronghorn and b) "circling disease" in
white-tailed deer. One of the leading veterinary pathologists on this
project was already suspicious that the etiology of "circling disease"
was scrapie being transmitted from sheep to deer. During the project's
existence, a total of 780 clinically affected animals (601 white-tailed
deer, 7 mule deer, 2 elk, and 170 exotic deer and antelope) were
collected. Tissues, including brain and lymph nodes, from the collected
animals were examined for spongiform histological lesions, and all were
found to be negative. Had CWD (a form of TSE, like scrapie) existed in
Texas during this time frame, it is probable that these investigations
would have detected these classic histological lesions, especially in
clinically affected animals. It must be noted, however, that the current
laboratory tests used to diagnose CWD were not available during the time
the Wildlife Disease Project so it can not be stated with absolute
certainty that CWD was not present.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/sta
tus/


PLAN FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE DISEASE IN TEXAS

Diseases such as CWD tend to be managed more effectively when efforts
are applied before or as the disease emerges, rather than after it
becomes established. CWD is an emerging disease. The current number of
known infections within private elk and deer breeding facilities varies
markedly among states (and Canada) and is increasing steadily with
continued and expanding surveillance and investigations. The geographic
spread of CWD in free-ranging mule deer, white-tailed deer and elk is a
concern. The recent discovery of CWD in free-ranging white-tailed deer
in Wisconsin and Illinois, approximately 700 miles east of any
previously known infection, and the discovery of several CWD positive
mule deer in New Mexico, approximately 35 miles north of the Texas
border were well out of the known boundaries of the disease.

The disease prevalence appears to be increasing in localized areas,
although it is not clear whether this is due to increased incidence, or
increased surveillance, reporting, and testing. Information from states
with direct experience in managing CWD is being used for developing
Texas plans as we learn from their experiences.

TPWD and TAHC are developing stepped up targeted and
geographically-focused surveillance plans to monitor free-ranging deer
for the presence of the disease and a rapid response plan to guide both
TPWD and TAHC should CWD be detected in the State. TPWD and TAHC are
also evaluating cervid management laws, rules, and policies for free
ranging and scientific breeder permitted cervids under their authority
to identify issues and potential weaknesses related to disease
management. In these efforts, TPWD and TAHC will work with other
agencies and organizations responsible for or are concerned about cervid
disease management in an attempt to ensure comprehensive approaches to
effective management of CWD risks (see Appendix C: Importation of
Susceptible Cervids).

TAHC and TPWD have split jurisdictions and regulatory responsibilities,
which creates challenges for both agencies (i.e., TAHC responsible for
elk, TPWD responsible for white-tailed deer and mule deer). Both
agencies will cooperate to resolve issues as they arise.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/pla
n/


COMPONENTS OF THE PLAN

1. Education and information sharing with public, constituents, and
other government agency personnel concerning CWD.
2. Ongoing targeted surveillance of clinical deer statewide (i.e.,
collecting and CWD- testing deer/elk exhibiting symptoms that may
be consistent with CWD).
3. Development and implementation of a geographically-focused
Monitoring Plan involving the sampling and CWD-testing of
hunter-harvested deer.
4. TAHC Rules for Importation of Susceptible Cervids (Appendix C
).
5. Response Plan for CWD should it occur in Texas(Appendix D
).
6. TAHC rules for monitoring for CWD in breeding facilities (Appendix
E
).
7. Media Response plan development in the possible event of a
positive CWD occurrence (Appendix F
).
8. Advance education of relevant professionals such as resource
agency personnel, private wildlife consultants, veterinarians,
landowners, wildlife co-ops, taxidermists, and others

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/com
ponents/


EDUCATION AND INFORMATION SHARING

TPWD/TAHC will help educate and share current information with the
general public, constituent groups, and other government agency
personnel. These efforts will include website updates, distribution of
brochures, periodic news releases, public meetings, informational
workshops, agency communications and reports. This information will
include: 1) basic history and understanding of CWD; 2) its nationwide
distribution, and status of knowledge of the disease (e.g.,
epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, population effects); 3)
other CWD related issues and concerns (e.g., carcass handling and meat
consumption, transmission potential to humans and livestock, deer
feeding); and 4) management and research actions being taken by TPWD and
TAHC. Information may also be designed to focus on specific issues of
importance to landowners, hunters, meat processors, taxidermists, deer
feeders, veterinarians, rehabilitators, feed companies, feeder
manufacturers and operators of captive deer and elk facilities.

Publication of technical findings of research in peer-reviewed journals
and agency reports will be strongly encouraged. The more informed all
agencies and the public (including hunters) become, the more effectively
CWD risks will be managed in the future.

Informing and educating the public, constituents, TPWD and other agency
personnel about CWD is essential. Development of informational brochures
and leaflets for public and intra-/interagency distribution containing
information about CWD being directed toward general public (including
hunter) interests and concerns are a necessity. This information will be
distributed as follows:

* Available at all TPWD offices statewide.
* Carried by Wildlife Biologists, Game Wardens and Park Peace Officers.
* Distributed to potential contact agencies and individuals.
* Potential contact agencies/individuals (in alphabetical order)
include:
o Cooperative Extension Service
o Exotic Wildlife Association
o Federal Natural resource and land management agencies, NPS,
USFWS and USFS
o Governors Office, EOC
o Military installations
o Sportsmen Conservationists of Texas
o Texas Ag. Council
o Texas Agricultural Extension Service
o Texas Animal Health Commission
o Texas Chapter of the Wildlife Society
o Texas Deer Association
o Texas Department of Agriculture
o Texas Game Warden Association
o Texas Grain and Feed Association
o Texas Farm Bureau
o Texas Taxidermists Association
o Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory
o Texas Veterinary Medical Association
o Texas Wildlife Association
o TSCRA (Texas and Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association)
o TS&GRA
o USDA/APHIS
o Wildlife rehabilitators

Should CWD occur it could have a significant adverse economical impact
upon landowners, local communities and landowners possessing deer held
under authority of Scientific Breeder Permits and elk. Special emphasis
would be directed toward informing all constituents that potentially
could be affected by the discovery of CWD in the State. These efforts
could be accomplished through the completion of a general news packet,
video releases, TPWD/TAHC web sites, as well as television and radio
news releases, as well as partner publications and information systems.

Informing and educating TPWD wildlife biologists and law enforcement
personnel is also critical, as these individuals will generally be the
first lines of information for the public and press. Internal
distribution of relevant information in a timely manner will aid TPWD
personnel in addressing any CWD concerns from the public or constituent
groups. As information is gathered regarding testing or other pertinent
data, TPWD should present this information as requested at interagency
meetings and professional meetings/symposia. These data should
additionally be published peer-reviewed journals or TPWD Technical
Reports. In addition, advance education of relevant professionals such
as other resource agency personnel, private wildlife consultants,
veterinarians, landowners, wildlife co-ops, taxidermists, feed store
personnel, and other similar professions who may be contacted by the
public and press for comments should be invited to education workshops.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/edu
cation/


ONGOING TARGETED SURVEILLANCE OF CLINICAL DEER STATEWIDE

Collecting CWD clinical-free-ranging cervids began in late summer 2002.
The collection of clinical deer has been reported by researchers in
other states to be particularly useful in detecting the presence/absence
of CWD in local areas statewide. TPWD will continue testing clinical
free-ranging deer for CWD as they are encountered. Federal funding
through APHIS/USDA may be available and would provide for increased
sampling during FY-04 sampling period and beyond.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/management_plan/sur
veillance/


Chronic Wasting Disease Testing


Submitting a Specimen for Testing

Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) will provide
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) based testing for Chronic Wasting Disease
(CWD), and screening for tuberculosis (TB) in cervids. These tests are
available at the College Station and Amarillo Laboratories. Specimens
required for testing are the obex of the brain, both retropharyngeal
lymph nodes, and both tonsils. If both CWD and TB testing are requested,
it is recommended that the entire head be shipped to the lab so each of
those specimens can be identified and processed. Antlers should be
removed from the head and the head, including a liberal amount of the
soft tissue posterior to the pharynx, should be packed in multiple
plastic bags to prevent leakage. A completed Texas Veterinary Medical
Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) Accession Form

or a letter with the name, address and telephone number of the submitter
should be enclosed in a separate plastic bag. Specimens must be chilled
within 2 hours after kill and should remain chilled during transit. For
optimum results, specimens should arrive at the lab within 24 hours
after kill. Charges are as follows:

Charges for Chronic Wasting Disease Testing
Note: There will be a $100.00 additional charge for carcass disposal if
an entire carcass is submitted.
Brain removal $10.00
IHC test for CWD $30.00
TB Screen $15.00
Head Disposal $15.00
Total $70.00

Payment by check or money order must be included with specimens for
testing to be completed. Credit Cards are not accepted. Specimens
submitted for both CWD and TB screening will require a pre-payment of
$65.00 or $50.00 if CWD testing alone is requested. Submission of
previously removed obexs must include a $30.00 payment for each test to
be completed. Please call 979-845-3414 if you have questions on specimen
submittal or charges.

Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) Accession Form

The Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) Accession
Form
media
download (PDF
270.3 KB) should be printed and filled out prior to submitting a sample.
See instructions above.

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/hunt/chronic_wasting_disease/testing/

SEE MAP OF CWD ON THE BORDER OF NEW MEXICO
VERY CLOSE TO TEXAS ;

http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/conservation/disease/cwd/documents/cwdmap.pd
f
http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/conservation/disease/cwd/documents/cwd_flyer
.pdf

NO update on CWD testing in Texas, New Mexico that i could find.
I have inquired about it though, no reply yet...


-------- Original Message --------
Subject: CWD testing to date TEXAS ?
Date: Mon, 09 May 2005 12:26:20 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: kristen.everett@tpwd.state.tx.us


Hello Mrs. Everett,

I am most curious about the current status on CWD testing
in Texas. could you please tell me what the current and past
testing figures are to date and what geographical locations these
tests have been in. good bust on the illegal deer trapping case.
keep up the good work there.........

thank you,
with kindest regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

CJD WATCH

http://www.fortunecity.com/healthclub/cpr/349/part1cjd.htm


CJD Watch message board

http://disc.server.com/Indices/167318.html


-------- Original Message --------

Subject: CWD testing in New Mexico
Date: Mon, 09 May 2005 14:39:18 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: ispa@state.nm.us


Greetings,

I am most curious of the current and past CWD testing in
New Mexico, and there geographical locations...

thank you,

Terry S. Singeltary SR.
CJD Watch


#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################


-------- Original Message --------
Subject: CWD SURVEILLANCE SAMPLE SUBMISSIONS TEXAS ?
Date: Mon, 16 Aug 2004 15:09:58 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


Greetings List members,

as i stated in my previous email;

>
> http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/news/pr/2004/2004Aug10_Anthrax_Confirmed.pdf
>
>> CWD has not been detected in Texas,
>
>
> SADLY, they have not tested enough from the total population to
> know if CWD is in Texas or not. time will tell though. IF they get
> serious about finding and documenting CWD in sufficient numbers
> here in TEXAS, sadly, i am afraid they will find it. ITs already
> at NM, Texas border, TSEs knows no borders. HOWEVER,
> with the recent finding of a CNS cow with high potential for BSE/TSE
> in TEXAS, with one high official over ruling another official that wanted
> it tested, with the high official winning out and the damn thing going
> to render without being tested, head spinal cord and all. THIS weighs
> heavy on the credibility of any surveillance for any TSE in TEXAS,
> and speaks a great deal for the over all surveillance of TSE in the
> USA...TSS
>

SO, i thought i would just see where these Ecoregions were, and just
how the CWD testing was distributed. YOU would think that with
the cluster of CWD bordering TEXAS at the WPMR in NM, you
would have thought this would be where the major CWD testing
samples were to have been taken? wrong! let's have a look at
the sample testing. here is map of CWD in NM WPMR bordering
TEXAS;

NEW MEXICO 7 POSITIVE CWD
WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE MAP

http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/conservation/disease/cwd/documents/cwdmap.pd
f

NEXT, let's have a look at the overall distribution of CWD in
Free-Ranging Cervids and see where the CWD cluster in NM
WSMR borders TEXAS;

Current Distribution of Chronic Wasting Disease in Free-Ranging Cervids

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/cwd/cwd-distribution.html

NOW, the MAP of the Exoregion where the samples were taken
to test for CWD;

CWD SURVEILLANCE SAMPLE SUBMISSIONS TEXAS

http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/animal_health/diseases/cwd/CWD2003.gif

Ecoregions of TEXAS

http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/images/tx-eco95.gif

IF you look at the area around the NM WSMR where the CWD
cluster was and where it borders TEXAS, that ecoregion is called
Trans Pecos region. Seems if my Geography and my Ciphering
is correct ;-) that region only tested 55% of it's goal. THE most
important area on the MAP and they only test some 96 samples,
this in an area that has found some 7 positive animals? NOW if we
look at the only other border where these deer from NM could
cross the border into TEXAS, this area is called the High Plains
ecoregion, and again, we find that the sampling for CWD was
pathetic. HERE we find that only 9% of it's goal of CWD sampling
was met, only 16 samples were tested from some 175 that were
suppose to be sampled.

AS i said before;

> SADLY, they have not tested enough from the total population to
> know if CWD is in Texas or not.


BUT now, I will go one step further and state categorically that
they are not trying to find it. just the opposite it seems, they are
waiting for CWD to find them, as with BSE/TSE in cattle, and
it will eventually...

TSS


#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html
####################

#################### https://lists.aegee.org/bse-l.html ####################




12/10/76
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
Office Note
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human
dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12002001.pdf

CJD CASE 1977 ? (notes)

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1977/00/00002001.pdf


CJD YOUNG PEOPLE

in the USA, a 16 year old in 1978;


ALSO IN USA;

(20 year old died from sCJD in USA in 1980 and a 16 year
old in 1981. see second url below)

in France, a 19 year old in 1982;

in Canada, a 14 year old of UK origin in 1988;

in Poland, cases in people aged 19, 23, and 27 were identified in
a retrospective study (published 1991), having been originally
misdiagnosed with a viral encephalitis;


Creutzfeldt's first patient in 1923 was aged 23.


ALSO;


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1995/10/27013001.pdf


20 year old died from sCJD in USA in 1980 and a 16 year
old in 1981. A 19 year old died from sCJD in
France in 1985. There is no evidence of an iatrogenic
cause for those cases....


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1995/10/20006001.pdf

Greetings,

The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"

SO, who was the genius that changed these rules that were set some 30
years ago?

TO bad they did not adhere to them, considering the mad cow feed ban warning
letters still coming through in August of 2004... we are still feeding ruminants
to ruminants.

CONSIDERING that the feeding of animal protein started some 3-4 decades ago
(or longer), I only ponder when the TSE agent in the bovine and bovine/ovine/
derived CJD in humans, actually 1st occured;

The Disease of Animal Order 1973 (Waste Food)

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1974/02/21001001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1974/02/25001001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1974/03/01001001.pdf

March 1, 1974

The Raw Fat & Bone Processors Ass. Ltd

I should at the same time remind you that as we discussed with you some
time ago we do intend, at a later date, to bring an Order aimed at reducing
animal health risks associated with animal protein processing...

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1974/03/01001001.pdf

DANGER IN CHEAP FEED

LIVESTOCK producers, hit hard over the past year by the
rising price of feeding-stuffs, now have a wider choice of alternatives.
AMOUNG these is DRIED ANIMAL MANURE sold seperately
in compound feeds.

snip...

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1974/04/16001001.pdf

manure drying plants?

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1975/04/08001001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1975/01/20001001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1975/12/10001001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1975/12/18001001.pdf


still disgusted in sunny Bacliff, TEXAS USA

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.


-------- Original Message -------- Subject: TSS URLS 12/05/04 FEDERAL DOCKETS AND JOURNALS
Date: Sun, 05 Dec 2004 11:38:54 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."


Docket No, 04-047-l Regulatory Identification No. (RIN) 091O-AF46 NEW BSE SAFEGUARDS (comment submission)

https://web01.aphis.usda.gov/regpublic.nsf/0/eff9eff1f7c5cf2b87256ecf000df08d?OpenDocument

Docket No. 03-080-1 -- USDA ISSUES PROPOSED RULE TO ALLOW LIVE ANIMAL
IMPORTS FROM CANADA


https://web01.aphis.usda.gov/BSEcom.nsf/0/b78ba677e2b0c12185256dd300649f9d?OpenDocument&AutoFramed


Docket No. 2003N-0312 Animal Feed Safety System [TSS SUBMISSION]

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txt

Docket Management Docket: 02N-0273 - Substances Prohibited From Use in

Animal Food or Feed; Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed

Comment Number: EC -10

Accepted - Volume 2


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004be07.html

PART 2


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004be09.html

PDF]Freas, William TSS SUBMISSION

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat -

Page 1. J Freas, William From: Sent: To: Subject: Terry S. Singeltary

Sr. [flounder@wt.net] Monday, January 08,200l 3:03 PM freas ...

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/01/slides/3681s2_09.pdf

Asante/Collinge et al, that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine

genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is indistinguishable

from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest _sporadic_ CJD;

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm

Docket Management Docket: 96N-0417 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice
in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients a
Comment Number: EC -2
Accepted - Volume 7

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Mar03/031403/96N-0417-EC-2.htm


[PDF] Appendices to PL107-9 Inter-agency Working Group Final Report 1-1
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Agent, Weapons of Mass Destruction Operations Unit Federal Bureau of
those who provided comments in response to Docket No. ...
Meager 8/18/01 Terry S. Singeltary Sr ...


www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/pubs/PL107-9_Appen.pdf

Docket No. 2003N-0312 Animal Feed Safety System [TSS SUBMISSION
TO DOCKET 2003N-0312]

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txt

# Docket No: 02-088-1 RE-Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of
2002; [TSS SUBMISSION ON POTENTIAL FOR BSE/TSE & FMD 'SUITCASE BOMBS'] -
TSS 1/27/03 (0)

Docket Management

Docket: 02N-0276 - Bioterrorism Preparedness; Registration of Food Facilities, Section 305
Comment Number: EC-254 [TSS SUBMISSION]

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/02n0276/02N-0276-EC-254.htm


Dockets Entered On October 2, 2003 Table of Contents, Docket #,
Title, 1978N-0301,

OTC External Analgesic Drug Products, ... EMC 7, Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #: 1, ...

www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/oct03/100203/100203.htm


Daily Dockets Entered on 02/05/03

DOCKETS ENTERED on 2/5/03. ... EMC 4 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol#: 2.
... Vol#: 1.

03N-0009 Federal Preemption of State & Local Medical Device Requireme. ...


www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Feb03/020503/020503.htm


Docket Management

Docket: 02N-0370 - Neurological Devices; Classification of Human Dura Mater

Comment Number: EC -1

Accepted - Volume 1


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004be11.html


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004bdfe.html


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jan03/012403/8004bdfc.html


Daily Dockets - 04/10/03

... 00D-1662 Use of Xenotransplantation Products in Humans.
EMC 98 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol#: 3. 01F ...
www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Apr03/041003/041003.htm - 05-20-2003
- Cached


2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 1
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jun03/060903/060903.htm


2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 7
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1

2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 7
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/oct03/100203/100203.htm

01N-0423 Substances Prohibited from use in animal food/Feed Ruminant

APE 5 National Renderers Association, Inc. Vol#: 2

APE 6 Animal Protein Producers Industry Vol#: 2

APE 7 Darling International Inc. Vol#: 2

EMC 1 Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Vol#: 3

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/01/Oct01/101501/101501.htm

Send Post-Publication Peer Review to journal:


Re: RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease in the United States


Email Terry S. Singeltary:


flounder@wt.net

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to

comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging

forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE

transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate

phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest

sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable

nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every

state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to

expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are

sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in

the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and

CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by

intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other

TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every

victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this

agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose

others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there

should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena

from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic

CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?


http://www.neurology.org/cgi/eletters/60/2/176#535

LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL


Volume 3, Number 8 01 August 2003


Newsdesk


Tracking spongiform encephalopathies in North America


Xavier Bosch

My name is Terry S Singeltary Sr, and I live in Bacliff, Texas. I lost

my mom to hvCJD (Heidenhain variant CJD) and have been searching for

answers ever since. What I have found is that we have not been told the

truth. CWD in deer and elk is a small portion of a much bigger problem.


49-year-old Singeltary is one of a number of people who have remained

largely unsatisfied after being told that a close relative died from a

rapidly progressive dementia compatible with spontaneous

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). So he decided to gather hundreds of

documents on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) and

realised that if Britons could get variant CJD from bovine spongiform

encephalopathy (BSE), Americans might get a similar disorder from

chronic wasting disease (CWD)the relative of mad cow disease seen among

deer and elk in the USA. Although his feverish search did not lead him

to the smoking gun linking CWD to a similar disease in North American

people, it did uncover a largely disappointing situation.


Singeltary was greatly demoralised at the few attempts to monitor the

occurrence of CJD and CWD in the USA. Only a few states have made CJD

reportable. Human and animal TSEs should be reportable nationwide and

internationally, he complained in a letter to the Journal of the

American Medical Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC

does not continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all

CJD cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.


Until recently, CWD was thought to be confined to the wild in a small

region in Colorado. But since early 2002, it has been reported in other

areas, including Wisconsin, South Dakota, and the Canadian province of

Saskatchewan. Indeed, the occurrence of CWD in states that were not

endemic previously increased concern about a widespread outbreak and

possible transmission to people and cattle.


To date, experimental studies have proven that the CWD agent can be

transmitted to cattle by intracerebral inoculation and that it can cross

the mucous membranes of the digestive tract to initiate infection in

lymphoid tissue before invasion of the central nervous system. Yet the

plausibility of CWD spreading to people has remained elusive.


Part of the problem seems to stem from the US surveillance system. CJD

is only reported in those areas known to be endemic foci of CWD.

Moreover, US authorities have been criticised for not having performed

enough prionic tests in farm deer and elk.


Although in November last year the US Food and Drug Administration

issued a directive to state public-health and agriculture officials

prohibiting material from CWD-positive animals from being used as an

ingredient in feed for any animal species, epidemiological control and

research in the USA has been quite different from the situation in the

UK and Europe regarding BSE.


Getting data on TSEs in the USA from the government is like pulling

teeth, Singeltary argues. You get it when they want you to have it,

and only what they want you to have.


Norman Foster, director of the Cognitive Disorders Clinic at the

University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI, USA), says that current

surveillance of prion disease in people in the USA is inadequate to

detect whether CWD is occurring in human beings; adding that, the

cases that we know about are reassuring, because they do not suggest the

appearance of a new variant of CJD in the USA or atypical features in

patients that might be exposed to CWD. However, until we establish a

system that identifies and analyses a high proportion of suspected prion

disease cases we will not know for sure. The USA should develop a

system modelled on that established in the UK, he points out.

Ali Samii, a neurologist at Seattle VA Medical Center who recently

reported the cases of three hunterstwo of whom were friendswho died

from pathologically confirmed CJD, says that at present there are

insufficient data to claim transmission of CWD into humans; adding that

[only] by asking [the questions of venison consumption and deer/elk

hunting] in every case can we collect suspect cases and look into the

plausibility of transmission further. Samii argues that by making both

doctors and hunters more aware of the possibility of prions spreading

through eating venison, doctors treating hunters with dementia can

consider a possible prion disease, and doctors treating CJD patients

will know to ask whether they ate venison.


CDC spokesman Ermias Belay says that the CDC will not be investigating

the [Samii] cases because there is no evidence that the men ate

CWD-infected meat. He notes that although the likelihood of CWD

jumping the species barrier to infect humans cannot be ruled out 100%

and that [we] cannot be 100% sure that CWD does not exist in humans&

the data seeking evidence of CWD transmission to humans have been very

limited.


http://infection.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa


he complained in a letter to the Journal of the American Medical

Association (JAMA 2003; 285: 733). I hope that the CDC does not

continue to expect us to still believe that the 85% plus of all CJD

cases which are sporadic are all spontaneous, without route or source.<<<

actually, that quote was from a more recent article in the Journal of

Neurology (see below), not the JAMA article...

Full Text

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.

http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/285/6/733?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=dignosing+and+reporting+creutzfeldt+jakob+disease&searchid=1048865596978_1528&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=jama

BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL

SOMETHING TO CHEW ON

BMJ

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/319/7220/1312/b#EL2

BMJ

http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/320/7226/8/b#EL1

THE PATHOLOGICAL PROTEIN

BY Philip Yam

Yam Philip Yam News Editor Scientific American www.sciam.com
http://www.thepathologicalprotein.com/

IN light of Asante/Collinge et al findings that BSE transmission to the
129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate phenotype that is
indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest _sporadic_ CJD;

-------- Original Message -------- Subject: re-BSE prions propagate as

either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD Date: Thu, 28 Nov 2002 10:23:43

-0000 From: "Asante, Emmanuel A" To:
"'flounder@wt.net'"

Dear Terry,

I have been asked by Professor Collinge to respond to your request. I am

a Senior Scientist in the MRC Prion Unit and the lead author on the

paper. I have attached a pdf copy of the paper for your attention. Thank

you for your interest in the paper.

In respect of your first question, the simple answer is, yes. As you

will find in the paper, we have managed to associate the alternate

phenotype to type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD.

It is too early to be able to claim any further sub-classification in

respect of Heidenhain variant CJD or Vicky Rimmer's version. It will

take further studies, which are on-going, to establish if there are

sub-types to our initial finding which we are now reporting. The main

point of the paper is that, as well as leading to the expected new

variant CJD phenotype, BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype

can lead to an alternate phenotype which is indistinguishable from type

2 PrPSc.

I hope reading the paper will enlighten you more on the subject. If I

can be of any further assistance please to not hesitate to ask. Best wishes.

Emmanuel Asante

<> ____________________________________

Dr. Emmanuel A Asante MRC Prion Unit & Neurogenetics Dept. Imperial

College School of Medicine (St. Mary's) Norfolk Place, LONDON W2 1PG

Tel: +44 (0)20 7594 3794 Fax: +44 (0)20 7706 3272 email:

e.asante@ic.ac.uk (until 9/12/02)

New e-mail: e.asante@prion.ucl.ac.uk (active from now)

____________________________________

snip...

full text ;

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm


AND the new findings of BASE in cattle in Italy of Identification of a
second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular
similarities with sporadic

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1


Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates
and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for
human health

THE findings from Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*,
Virginie Nouvel*,

Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger

] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique

Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent responsible
for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is
very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of
sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1

Characterization of two distinct prion strains
derived from bovine spongiform encephalopathy
transmissions to inbred mice

http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/8/2471


ALL animals for human/animal consumption must be tested for TSE.

ALL human TSEs must be made reportable Nationally and Internationally,
OF ALL AGES...TSS

japantoday All Messages By flounderJapan to ease all-cow mad cow testing Aug 1flounder (Jul 2 2005 - 10:03) Japan had the best BSE/TSE testing protocol in the world. THIS is a step backward. must have caved into industry demands. NEXT, Japan consumer will have USA mad cow beef shoved down there throat, and we know how USA testing for BSE goes in USA. cover-up at all cost, then cover-up some more...TSS Read The Article,Japan to ease all-cow mad cow testing Aug 1 Lower house lawmakers to check U.S. efforts on BSEflounder (Jun 10 2005 - 23:54) Greetings,SO, the already terribly flawwed OIE BSE surveillance system is too burdensome for trade.Aint that just too bad. SO, they decide to make it even weaker. The damn thing never workedanyway. ALL one has to do is look at the documented BSE Countries that went by it. Did thema lot of good.TO think that a sample survey of 400 or so cattle in a population of 100 million, to think this will find anything, especially after seeing how many TSE tests it took Italy and other Countries to find 1 case of BSE (1 million rapid TSE test in less than 2 years, to find 102 BSE cases), should be proof enough to make drastic changes of this system. the OIE criteria for BSE Country classification and it's interpretation is very problematic. a text that is suppose to give guidelines, but is not understandable, cannot be considered satisfactory...http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txthttp://brain.hastypastry.net/forums/archive/index.php/t-54550.htmlTHE OIE has now shown they are nothing more than a National Trading Brokerage for all strains of animal TSE.AS i said before, OIE should hang up there jock strap now, since it appears they will buckle every time a country makes some political hay about trade protocol, commodities and futures. IF they are not going to be science based, they should do everyone a favor and dissolve there organization. With Science like this, Japan would be fully justified in declining to be a member. ...Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. BOX 42 Bacliff, TEXAS USA Read The Article,Lower house lawmakers to check U.S. efforts on BSE Lower house lawmakers to check U.S. efforts on BSEflounder (Jun 10 2005 - 23:40) ALL ABOUT FREE TRADING OF ALL STAINS OF TSEs! commodities and futures$ tohell with human health.not enough body bags yet. simply amazing what they can get away with,(murder), corporate homicide. they know andhave known for decades, but continued to spread the agent, via a multitudeof proven routes and sources. now theOIE supports this policy of free trading of all strains of TSEs. what next,BSE in sheep? who cares though? they willtrade that freely too. THE OIE told me over two years ago they were going toaddress the CWD issue. Never didthough. Well, seems GW et al got what they wanted, I hope the administration(both parties that wanted it), i hopethey all choke on it, while they all hide behind there junk science designedfor free trade. ...TSS Read The Article,Lower house lawmakers to check U.S. efforts on BSE TEST EVERY COW ! indeed...TSSflounder (Jan 16 2005 - 10:43) Using Dentition to Age CattleFor many years, producers, veterinarians, and exhibitors (at cattle shows) have used cattle dentition to make general age determinations. Dentition will vary from herd-to-herd and animal-to-animal, because of the animal's genetics, their diet, and the varied geographical locations in which they are raised. Despite individual differences, when the age of an animal is not known, examination of the teeth serves as the best and most practical method of age determination. This document will serve as FSIS guidance for aging cattle.http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OFO/TSC/bse_information.htmUNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUREFOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICEWASHINGTON, DC FSIS NOTICE Read The Article,U.S. offers strict checks on cattle age to lift Japan's beef ban USA BSE GBR RISK ASSESSMENT RAISED TO IIIflounder (Nov 27 2004 - 08:14) EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of the United States of America (USA)Publication date: 20 August 2004http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/efsa_scientific_reports/gbr_assessments/573_en.htmlhttp://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/03n0312/03N-0312_emc-000001.txtTerry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. BOX 42 Bacliff, TEXAS USA Read The Article,Japan to send BSE mission to U.S. re-Japan to send BSE mission to U.S.flounder (Nov 27 2004 - 08:09) Hello Japan,A kind greetings from Texas.DO NOT believe anything the Bush Administration tells you and or shows you. I am sure the facilities the USDA/APHIS et al shows you and the procedures of rendering and slaughtering will be fit for show.HOWEVER, this is only for show. please let me explain. IN TEXAS, we dont test suspect cns/bse cattle, we send them straight to render, this has been proven. BUT this lates positive, positive, negative cow is just another cover up;Terry S. Singeltary SR.P.O. Box 42Bacliff, Texas USA 77518MOM DOD 12/14/97 hvCJD Read The Article,Japan to send BSE mission to U.S. Japan may remove cows aged 20 months or younger from testflounder (Sep 4 2004 - 23:07) >Farmers from Minnesota, Wisconsin and North Dakota, however, said theywant guarantees that the information they provide will remainconfidential. They fear that agro-terrorists could use it to introducediseases.There are still many unknowns in the ambitious plan, which is beingdeveloped by the government and agriculture industry as they follow inthe footsteps of other countries, such as Canada, which track livestock.For now, the system is voluntary, though there's a good chance itwill become mandatory later.or thatthey might be sued if disease outbreaks are traced to their farms.Dale Lueck, an Aitkin County beef farmer, urged officials to make surethat all 50 states develop compatible systems as livestock move acrossstate lines.Steve Peterson of Holstein Association USA called for a mandatory systemfor trade reasons.More than 1.3 million farm animals have beenregistered, with information including birthplaces, animal-to-animalcontacts and slaughter locations.Once it's up and running in the next few years, agriculture officialssaid, the system will attempt to identify all animals and premises thathad direct contact with a foreign animal disease within 48 hours afterdiscovery. Read The Article,Japan asks U.S. to prevent Canadian beef shipments MAD COW USA, JAPAN BE WARNED !!!flounder (Jul 26 2003 - 23:59) WHY is Japan only concerned about Canadian beef, when they shouldbe concerned about NORTH AMERICAN BEEF, ALL OF IT!due to NAFTA, a cow in Canada, could very well come from eitherMexico or the USA. and if any of you think there is only one madcowin North America, well, i got some big news for you;To be published in the Proceedings of theFourth International Scientific Congress inFur Animal Production. Toronto, Canada,August 21-28, 1988Evidence That Transmissible Mink EncephalopathyResults from Feeding Infected CattleR.F. Marsh* and G.R. Hartsough?Department of Veterinary Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison,Wisconsin 53706; and ^Emba/Creat Lakes Ranch Service, Thiensville, Wisconsin 53092FULL TEXT :http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20030721-102924-4786rTSS Read The Article,Japan asks U.S. to prevent Canadian beef shipments http://www.japantoday.com/e/?content=bbs&order=msg&author=flounder emerging infectious disease Japan; http://eid.whlib.ac.cn/RSdetail/detail.asp?id=298 ==================================== HELL, WE ARE STILL FEEDING COWS TO COWSIN JUNE 2005 ; From: TSS ()Subject: MAD COW FEED BAN WARNING LETTER USA June 9, 2005Date: July 5, 2005 at 8:46 am PSTDepartment of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug AdministrationMinneapolis District OfficeCentral Region212 Third Avenue SouthMinneapolis, MN 55401Telephone: (612) 758-7119FAX: (612) 334-4142June 9, 2005WARNING LETTERCERTIFIED MAILRETURN RECEIPT REQUESTEDRefer to MIN 05-15Michael J. LangenhorstPresidentAnamax CorporationP.O. Box 10067Green Bay, WI 54307Dear Mr. Langenhorst:Our inspection of your rendering plant located at 505 Hardman Avenue South, South St. Paul, Minnesota, from January 12-20, 2005, revealed significant deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations , Part 589 .2000 (21 CFR 589 .2000), Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. This regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Because you failed to follow the requirements of this regulation, products being manufactured and distributed by your facility are adulterated within the meaning of Section 402(a)(4) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) [21 U.S.C. 342(a)(4)], and misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(a)(1) of the Act [21 U.S.C. 343(a)(1)].Our investigation found that you failed to provide for measures to prevent commingling or cross-contamination and to maintain sufficient written procedures [21 CFR 589.2000(e)] in that:1. You failed to use clean-out procedures or other means adequate to prevent carryover of protein derived from mammalian tissues into feeds that may be used for ruminants.2. You failed to maintain written procedures specifying the clean-out procedures or other means to prevent carryover of protein derived from mammalian tissues into feeds that may be used for ruminants.Our investigation also found that you failed to label products that may contain protein derived from mammalian tissues with the statement, "Do not feed to cattle or other ruminants." For example, your Feather Meal and Stabilized Poultry By-Product Meal lack this statement, even though the absence of sufficient measures to avoid commingling or cross-contamination may result in these products containing protein derived from mammalian tissues. Because your products do not bear this caution statement, they are misbranded under Section 403(a)(1) of the Act [21 U.S .C. 343(a)(1)).The above is not intended as an all-inclusive list of violations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal feed use, you are responsible for ensuring that your overall operation and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with the law.You should acknowledge this letter within 15 working days of receiving and include any additional corrective actions concerning your facility. We have received your letter dated January 31, 2005, which replies to the Form FDA-483 issued on January 20, 2005, and your letter dated February 25, 2005, that states all corrections have been implemented. The corrections you have reported appear to be adequate but will be evaluated further during our follow-up inspection.Your response should be directed to Compliance Officer Jane E . Nelson at the address on the letterhead. If you have any questions regarding this letter, you may phone Ms. Nelson at (612) 758-7119.Sincerely,/S/W. Charles BecoatDirectorMinneapolis Districthttp://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g5373d.pdf
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518






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