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From: TSS ()
Subject: EFSA provides further assessment on health risks of goat meat and goat meat products with regard to BSE 27 June 2005
Date: June 28, 2005 at 9:58 am PST

EFSA provides further assessment on health risks of goat meat and goat meat products with regard to BSE

Last updated: 27 June 2005

Following the suspected case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in a goat in France, which was subsequently confirmed*, the European Commission requested that EFSA carry out a quantitative risk assessment on the risks posed to humans from goat meat and goat meat products.

Press release
EFSA provides further assessment on health risks of goat meat and goat meat products with regard to BSE

Following the suspected case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in a goat in France, which was subsequently confirmed*, the European Commission requested that EFSA carry out a quantitative risk assessment on the risks posed to humans from goat meat and goat meat products. In a statement published on 28 January 2005**, the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) indicated that important information gaps remained related to the quantification of risks to human health associated with consumption of goat meat should BSE be present in the goat population. In its opinion published today, the BIOHAZ Panel concludes that the likely prevalence of BSE in the wider EU goat population is very low, based on results of ongoing and also recently increased surveillance of the goat population put in place by the European Commission*** and on other data available to date. Owing to a lack of appropriate data required to quantify the risk of BSE in goats, EFSA’s BIOHAZ Panel carried out a qualitative risk assessment. The Panel concluded that “the current risk in terms of BSE, related to the consumption of goat meat and goat meat products, is considered at this time to be small for goats born in 2001 after the feed ban and later”. Such advice could be reviewed in the future pending availability of further surveillance and experimental data.

The BIOHAZ Panel based its assessment on the following points:

The European Commission and Member States have so far carried out over 93,000 tests on goats since the first case was identified and none have been found positive for BSE****.
BSE has been found in only one goat (in France) and none of the other goats in the herd concerned had the disease. A second suspected case from another herd in the UK is undergoing additional laboratory tests for BSE and these results will be completed in 2 years’ time
The only goat confirmed as having the disease was born before the 2001 feed ban on Meat and Bone Meal (MBM). MBM is thought to be the most likely route of BSE infection to cattle. Since the 2001 ban, very few goats, if any, would have had access to MBM.
The UK goat population was traditionally fed with MBM before it was banned in the EU and, with the exception of a case of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) still to be confirmed, there is no evidence of any goat having BSE in the UK
Specified Risk Materials (SRM)*****, such as brain and spinal cord, have been and continue to be removed from all goats over the age of 12 months since 2001. This risk management measure eliminates those parts of the animal which would be the most highly infectious, if an animal were to have BSE. Current SRM measures for goats do not however reduce the risk to the same extent as for cattle in the case of an infected animal.

EFSA’s BIOHAZ Panel further concluded that given the paucity of data, it would be necessary to carry out experimental research in order to assess the infectivity and development of BSE in goats. Depending on availability of funding, this research could take up to 3-4 years to complete. In addition, the Panel recommended that the European Commission conduct increased surveillance of the goat population with respect to BSE and in collaboration with Member States for a further 6 months in order to confirm the initial results obtained thus far with regard to BSE prevalence.

Should another case or cases be found, EFSA might then have to re-evaluate its risk assessment scenarios for BSE in goats without delay. The occurrence of a further case could have an impact on safety related to the consumption of both goat meat and goat meat products and, ultimately, on human health.

Various risk scenarios were considered by the Panel. If experimental data on BSE in goats were to confirm that, as for scrapie, the infectious agent is distributed in the goat in many of its tissues, and if the surveillance indicates in future that BSE prevalence in the goat population is higher than presently considered, then there could be a potential for a considerable adverse impact on public health.

For the full text of the Opinion


*Suspected case of BSE in a goat in France
**Statement on the assessment of safety with respect to the consumption of goat meat and goat meat products in relation to BSE/TSE
*** Ongoing and also recently increased surveillance of the goat population put in place by the European Commission
****The European Commission stepped up its surveillance of the goat population following the detection of the first case in France last year. This involved increased and discriminatory testing to distinguish between BSE and scrapie (a form of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy which is not transmissible to humans) for all positive scrapie cases.
*****According to EU rules, the following SRMs; brain, spinal cord, skull, eyes, tonsils, must be removed from goats over 12 months old. The spleen and ileum should be removed from all goats.

For media enquiries, please contact:
Alun Jones, Press Officer
Tel: + 32 2 337 2487
E-mail: Alun.Jones@efsa.eu.int

or

Anne-Laure Gassin, EFSA Communications Director
Tel : + 32 2 337 2248
GSM: + 32 478 330 19 68
E-mail: Anne-Laure.Gassin@efsa.eu.int

Notes for editors:

1: Although the European Commission asked EFSA to look into BSE for both goats and sheep, EFSA decided to address the issue of BSE in goats for the present time as this was the species in which a case had been found under natural conditions and in order to simplify the task at hand. This does not exclude EFSA’s undertaking a further risk assessment of BSE in sheep at a later stage.

2: A goat in the UK was also suspected of having BSE. Material from this goat has been sent for laboratory tests involving a mouse bioassay which may take up to 2 years to complete.

3: Concerning goat milk and goat milk products, EFSA’s BIOHAZ panel concluded in January 2005 that in light of current scientific knowledge, goat milk and milk products sourced from healthy animals, and irrespective of their geographical origin, are unlikely to present any risk of TSE (or BSE) infection at this time. Experts recommended that the common practice of excluding animals with mastitis (inflammation of the udder) as sources of milk continue to be emphasised as it provides further assurance of the removal of any potential infection including TSE. EFSA’s scientific advice remains unchanged on this issue.

EFSA statement


Statement of the Scientific Expert Working Group on BSE/TSE of the EFSA’s BIOHAZ Panel on the safety of goat milk and derived products with respect to possible risks from BSE/TSE



Publication date: 27 June 2005


http://www.efsa.eu.int/press_room/press_release/995_en.html

Opinion of the BIOHAZ Panel on: “A quantitative assessment of risk posed to humans by tissues of small ruminants in case BSE is present in these animal populations”.
Last updated: 27 June 2005
Adopted on 8 June 2005 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2004-170)

Opinion
http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/biohaz/biohaz_opinions/990/biohaz_opinion_ej227_bse_goat_en1.pdf
Summary
Summary of Opinion

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

OPINION OF THE SCIENTIFIC PANEL ON BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS ON "A

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RISK POSED TO HUMANS BY TISSUES OF SMALL

RUMINANTS IN CASE BSE IS PRESENT IN THESE ANIMAL POPULATIONS".

(EFSA – Q – 2004 -170)

Adopted on 8 June 2005

SUMMARY

Following the confirmation of BSE in a goat in France on 28 January 2005, the

European Commission (EC) (DG Sanco) invited the European Food Safety Authority

(EFSA) and its Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) to carry out "a

quantitative assessment of risk posed to humans by tissues of small ruminants in case

BSE is present in these animal populations". The mandate requests a quantitative

assessment of the risk posed by human consumption of meat derived from goats and

sheep of different ages and genotypes in case BSE is confirmed. It should take

account of studies of the tissue distribution of the agent, prevalence evaluations and

any other relevant data and, if possible, should consider different scenarios. In

addition to current legislative measures the EC also stepped up its surveillance

programme in sheep and goat. These new measures became mandatory in early 2005

and include a three step testing strategy in order to differentiate between scrapie and

BSE for all confirmed positive scrapie cases in both sheep and goats and an increase

in surveillance focusing on increased testing of goats for both healthy and fallen

stock.

In carrying out this risk assessment, the BIOHAZ panel and its Working Group (WG)

considered the available data on epidemiology and scientific reports on studies

concerning the pathogenesis of BSE in sheep and goats as the basis for their

assessment. Additional data gathered from the EC, individual Member States and

EFSA and its Advisory Forum (AF) were also taken into account.

The BIOHAZ Panel WG concluded that there are currently not enough data on BSE

in goats to allow a quantitative assessment of risk posed to humans by consumption of

meat and meat products derived from goats infected with BSE.

The WG accepted that there were more experimental research data available for sheep

both related to the pathogenesis of BSE in sheep and surveillance in the sheep

population. Therefore, at this time, a risk assessment directed specifically at goat meat

would necessarily be based on data from sheep. Such an approach would neither

provide a proportionate response to the EC nor a science-based assessment of public

health risks from goat meat and goat meat products. Although data are still lacking at

present, the prospect of further information, including information related to exposure

and other epidemiological factors, may allow a comprehensive and reliable

quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for BSE in sheep in the future.

In considering all of the required data for a QRA of goat meat it was concluded that

the most significant data to be obtained relate to the current prevalence of BSE in

goats. It was acknowledged that steps had been taken to acquire this data but that

Summary of Opinion

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2

complete results from recently initiated surveillance including discriminatory testing

of goats for BSE will not become available before end 2005.

The WG concluded that a qualitative RA on goat meat could be made considering the

existing risk management (RM) measures in place since 2001 and the results of the

recently increased level of surveillance in goats and the discriminatory testing. For

such a qualitative RA on goat meat, account is taken of a number of facts including

that the goat found positive was born before the feed ban in 2001, and that currently,

goats slaughtered for human consumption at a young age and born after the

introduction of the feed ban, would present a lower risk than the adult population.

Also other risk management measures in place (e.g. Specified Risk Material (SRM)

list, rendering) contribute to the further reduction of the risk to the consumer.

Moreover, the initial results of increased testing and discriminatory testing have not

indicated any additional suspect BSE cases in goats or sheep. Therefore, the current

risk in terms of BSE, related to the consumption of goat meat and goat meat products

is considered at this time to be small for goats born after the feed ban, i.e. in 2001 and

later.

The BIOHAZ panel recommended collecting additional data which would make a

QRA possible in the future. In addition to the increased surveillance already initiated,

it is also recommended to initiate as soon as possible additional research focusing on

the experimental induction of BSE infection in goats. This would allow evaluation of

the pathogenesis of the disease after oral exposure, including the tissue distribution

and infectivity relative to age and incubation period, and thereby to determine the

tissues most at risk as well as their infectivity load.

http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/biohaz/biohaz_opinions/990_en.html


http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/biohaz/biohaz_opinions/990/biohaz_opinion_ej227_bse_goat_summary_en1.pdf


IN THE USA MAY SCRAPIE SURVEILLANCE REPORT, IT WAS REPORTED THAT ANOTHER CASE OF SCRAPIE
WAS DETECTED IN A GOAT. THE FIRST CASE REPORTED SINCE 1990. SEVERAL QUESTIONS PLEASE;

1. would USA TSE testing in sheep and goat detect BSE, CWD or any other atypical TSE ?

2. would the USDA tell you if one did positive for BSE, CWD or any other atypical TSE ?

SCRAPIE USA MONTHLY REPORT 2005

AS of March 31, 2005, there were 70 scrapie infected source flocks (Figure 3). There were 11 new infected and source flocks reported in March (Figure 4) with a total of 51 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 39 (Figure 6), with 1 flock released in March. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.76 : 1. IN addition, as of March 31, 2005, 225 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 53 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in March 2005 (Figure 8). Fourteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat cases was reported in January 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released or put on clean-up plans for FY 2005 are depicted in Figure 10. ...

FULL TEXT ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html


12/10/76
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
Office Note
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human
dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12002001.pdf



1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8


Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

PMID: 6997404
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/


TSS






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