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From: TSS ()
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> BSE update 2005 (01)
Date: April 28, 2005 at 1:15 pm PST

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> BSE update 2005 (01)
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2005 14:37:02 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
To: BSE-L@LISTS.UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

BSE UPDATE 2005 (01)
*****************
A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases


In this update:
[1] International cases update, 22 Apr 2005
[2] OIE: annual incidence rate
[3] Netherlands
[4] USA: GAO report.

****
[1] International cases update, 22 Apr 2005
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2005
From: ProMED-mail
Source: European Union and Office International des Epizooties data (see
comment) [edited]


BSE confirmed cases update, 22 Apr 2005
---------------------------------------
Country / 2001 / 02 / 03 / 04 /total 1987-2004/[1.1.05-22.4.05]
UK / 1202 / 1144 / 612 / 328 /184 138/ [92]
Austria / 1 / 0 / 0 / .... /1/ [-]
Belgium / 46 / 38 / 15 /11/128/ [1]
Canada / 0 / 0 / 2 / 0 / 2/ [1]
Czech Republic / 2 / 2 / 4 / 7 / 15/ [3]
Denmark / 6 / 3 / 2 / 1 / 13/ [-]
Finland / 1 / 0 / 0 /.... / 1 [-]
France / 274 / 239 / 137 / 54 / 946 / [2]
Germany / 125 / 106 / 54 / 64/ 362/ [15]
Greece / 1 / 0 / 0 /.... / 1 /[-]
Ireland / 246 / 333 / 183 / 117 / 1470 / [23]
Israel / 0 / 1 / 0 / 0 / 1 / [0]
Italy / 48 / 38 / 29 / 8 / 125 / [3]
Japan / 3 / 2 / 4 / 5 / 14 / [2]
Liechtenstein / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 2 / [-]
Luxembourg / 0 / 1 / 0 / 0 / 2/ [0]
Netherlands / 20 / 24 / 19 / 6 / 77 / [-]
Poland / 0 / 4 / 5 / 11 / 20 / [11]
Portugal / 110 / 86 / 133 / 91 / 949 /[13]
Slovakia / 5 / 6 / 2 / 7 / 20 / [-]
Slovenia / 1 / 1 / 1 / 2* / 4/ [-]
Spain / 82 / 127 / 167 / 137 / 532/ [12]
Switzerland / 42 / 24 / 21 / 3** / 456 /[0]
United States / 0 / 0 / 1*** / 0 / 1 /[0]

* Including an animal born in Germany
** Including a case in a zoo zebu
*** An imported case (from Canada; this case is included also in the
Canadian statistics).

--
ProMED-mail


[These data have been derived and compiled from 3 sources:
1. EU's Table "BSE cases in cattle over the last 12 months, 1 Jan 2004-31
Dec 2004"
;
2. Table 11 ("Situation countries/diseases") of EU's weekly report "Animal
Disease Notification System (ADNS)" for the period 1 Jan to 22 Apr 2005
;
3. OIE's BSE tables, updated 26 Apr 2005


The cited figures are the ones reported by each country at the latest date
in either of the said tables. During 2004, an increase in the number of
recorded BSE cases was observed in the Czech Republic, Germany, Japan,
Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. This trend seems to be clearly continuing
during 2005 in Poland and Germany (Respectively, 11 and 15 new cases
recorded since 1 Jan 2005). For further data on the trend in various
countries, see next item.- Mod.AS]

******
[2] OIE:Annual incidence rates
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2005
From: ProMED-mail
Source: OIE web-site - BSE, accessed 26 Apr 2005 [edited]

Annual incidence rate of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in OIE
Member Countries that have reported cases, 2000 - 2004
--------------------------------------------------
(=Number of indigenous cases per million bovines aged over 24 months)

Country / 2000 / 2001 / 2002 / 2003 / 2004
Austria / 0 / 0.96 / 0 / 0 / .....
Belgium / 5.53 / 28.22 / 25.75 / 10.54 / 7.882
Canada / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0.33 / 0.149
Czech Republic / 0 / 2.85 / 2.50 / 5.78 / 10.324
Denmark / 1.14 / 6.77 / 3.35 / 2.39 / 1.296
Finland / 0 / 2.39 / 0 / 0 /.....
France / 14.73(a) / 19.70 / 20.96 / 12.01 / 4.736
Germany / 1.07 / 19.97 / 17.02 / 8.71 / ......
Greece / 0 / 3.3 / 0 / 0 / .....
Ireland / 38.17 (a) / 61.80 (b) / 88.39 / 57.81 / 43.327
Israel / 0 / 0 / 6.25 / 0 / .....
Italy / 0 / 14.1 / 10.60 / 9.86 / 2.348
Japan / 0 / 1.44 / 0.97 / 1.96 / 2.491
Luxembourg / 0 / 0 / 14.54 / 0 / .....
Netherlands / 1.07 / 10.25 / 13.19 / 10.86 / 3.399
Poland / 0 / 0 / 1.28 / 1.49 / 3.578
Portugal / 186.95 / 137.88 / 107.80 / 137.19 / 93.870
Slovakia / 0 / 18.34 / 18.73 / 6.74 / 24.635
Slovenia / 0 / 4.34 / 4.44 / 4.39 / 4.585
Spain / 0.59 / 24.23 / 37.95 / 46.31 / 38.945
Switzerland/ 40.6/ 49.1/27.93/24.86/ 3.750
UK / 270.56 / 232.76 / 228.24 / 122.44 / 67.796

(a) France 2000: annual incidence rate in animals euthanised or found dead
= 5.45; annual incidence rate in BSE clinical cases = 9.27; Ireland 2000:
annual incidence rate in cases detected by the active surveillance
programme = 17.93; annual incidence rate in BSE clinical cases = 35.35.
(b) Ireland 2001: annual incidence rate in cases detected by the active
surveillance programme = 29.90; annual incidence rate in BSE clinical cases
= 30.90

--
ProMED-mail


[As previously, the 2 countries with the highest annual BSE incidence rate
in 2004 were Portugal (93.870) and the UK (67.796). 4 countries have
experienced in 2004 an increased incidence rate compared to the previous
year, namely Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Japan (in descending
order). Though Germany experienced also an increase (see previous item),
its calculated incidence rate has not yet been included in the OIE table. -
Mod.AS]

******
[3] Netherlands
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2005
From: ProMED-mail
Source: Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport web-site, accessed 28
Apr 2005 [translated from Dutch, edited].

Following the reporting of the first (highly suspected) case of variant
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Netherlands (see 20050423.1135),
the following relevant data, pertaining to BSE in the Netherlands, have
been derived from an Q&A page, updated 21 Apr 2005, in the said official
web-site:

1. So far, 77 cases of BSE in bovines have been diagnosed in the
Netherlands, peaking in 2002.
2. Since 1 Sep 2001, all blood-derived products are leucocyte-depleted.
3. Since 1 Nov 2001, blood donors who had stayed in the UK longer than 6
months between 1980-1996 are excluded.
4. Since 1 Feb 2005, blood donors who have received blood transfusion(s)
after 1 Jan 1980 are excluded.
5. The feeding of ruminants with ruminant-derived meat & bone meal (MBM)
has been banned in 1989. Import of MBMs from the UK was banned in 1990.
6. Since 1997, high-risk organs, derived from bovines, are excluded from
the food chain. This includes, among others, the brain, spinal cord, eyes
and tonsils.
7. Since 1 Jan 2001, all bovines older than 30 months are BSE-tested in
slaughterhouses prior to their release for consumption.

--
ProMED-mail


[The Q&A page mentions also the following significant information which has
not been included in previous reports: "The (26-year-old female) patient
has not visited the UK in the past years".

The 1st case of BSE in an indigenous cow was reported in the Netherlands in
1998. However, according to the updated opinion of EU's SCIENTIFIC STEERING
COMMITTEE on the Geographical Risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
(GBR), adopted on 11 Jan 2002, exports of life bovine or meat & bone meal
(MBM) from the Netherlands could have represented an external challenge to
the importing country since 1985 (possible) or 1987 (likely). (see
).
- Mod.AS].

******
[4] USA: GAO report.
Date: Thu, 28 Apr 2005
From: ProMED-mail
Source: CIDRAP News, 26 Apr 2005 [edited]

GAO faults FDA handling of BSE-linked feed ban

----------------------------------------------
Despite some improvements since 2002, the Food and Drug Administration's
(FDA's) enforcement of rules to keep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
from spreading through cattle feed still has serious gaps, the Government
Accountability Office (GAO) reported recently.

Some feed businesses have never been inspected, while others have not been
inspected in more than 5 years, according to the GAO report, issued in
March [2005]. In addition, the FDA does not usually test cattle feed for
banned material, and the agency has not always alerted other federal
agencies and the states when it learned that cattle might have been given
feed containing such material.

"We believe that the problems described in this report are serious and
that, given the fact that BSE has been discovered in North American cattle,
breaches in FDA's oversight of the feed-ban rule place US cattle at risk
for BSE," the report states. But the FDA said the problems are not
significant enough to pose a serious risk.

BSE, or mad cow disease, spreads when cattle eat feed containing the
remains of infected animals. To prevent this, in 1997 the FDA banned the
use of most proteins from mammals in feed for cattle and other ruminant
animals. (However, cattle blood, milk, restaurant plate waste, and gelatin
can still be used in cattle feed.)

The sole US case of BSE so far was discovered in December 2003 in a
Canadian-born cow in Washington state. The discovery promoted the US
Department of Agriculture (USDA) to add some new rules to keep infective
material out of the food supply and to greatly increase testing of cattle
for the disease. The USDA and FDA banned the use of specified-risk
materials -- high-risk cattle parts such as the brain, spinal cord, and
tonsils -- in human food, but they can still be used in feed for
nonruminant animals and pets.

Under the FDA feed ban, firms must clearly label feed and feed ingredients
that may contain banned proteins with the statement "Do not feed to cattle
or other ruminants." Firms also must have methods for preventing mixing if
they handle feed for both nonruminant animals (whose feed is still allowed
to contain cattle protein) and ruminants.

Sens. Tom Harkin, D-Iowa, and Dick Durbin, D-Ill., requested the GAO
report. To gather information, the agency reviewed 404 FDA inspection
reports, interviewed FDA officials, and watched FDA and state inspectors
conduct 19 feed-facility inspections in 12 states, the report says. The GAO
also surveyed state agency officials in 38 states that inspected feed
facilities under contracts with the FDA last year.

The report says the FDA has remedied some problems that the GAO had
described in a report in early 2002. The agency now has uniform methods for
inspecting feed facilities and training both FDA and state inspectors, plus
better methods for tracking inspection results.

However, the GAO finds that the enforcement program still has serious
weaknesses:

-About 14 800 feed manufacturers and other feed-industry businesses have
been inspected so far, but the FDA knows there are others that have not
been inspected, and it has no "uniform approach" for finding them.

-The FDA has not reinspected about 2800 feed businesses in the past 5
years. Many of those were farms that are considered low-risk, but about 400
were feed mills, where the risk of violations is deemed higher.

-The FDA's inspection guidelines do not call for routine testing of cattle
feed for banned material. FDA officials said the presence of exempt items
such as cattle blood in feed makes such testing useless, but officials in
some states said such testing would be useful at firms that say they don't
use exempt items.

-The FDA has not always alerted the USDA and states when it learned that
cattle might have been given feed containing banned material, even though
the FDA's guidelines call for such notifications. In one case, an inspector
found that a firm had been using banned material for nearly a year; the
firm issued a recall, but the FDA did not notify the USDA or the state.

-The FDA has given incomplete information about feed-ban compliance to
Congress and the public. For example, in Jan 2004 the agency reported a 99
percent compliance rate but failed to note that the rate was based on
inspections of only about 570 firms. And in some cases, FDA has counted
firms as being in compliance even when the firms have placed no warning
labels on feeds that contain prohibited material.

The report says that in commenting on a draft version, the FDA said it
believed "that the weaknesses we identified are not sufficiently material
to place U.S. cattle at risk for BSE and that its risk-based inspection
approach assures adequate oversight of the feed-ban rule."

The report includes 9 recommendations to correct the various problems. The
FDA disagreed with 4 of the recommendations, including the advice that the
FDA should test feed samples when it inspects feed businesses. Tests cannot
detect the prions that cause BSE, but they can detect animal material,
which would help in verifying inspection results, the GAO contends.

See also:

1. GAO report "Mad cow disease: FDA's management of the feed ban has
improved, but oversight weaknesses continue to limit program effectiveness"


2. 28 Feb, 2002, CIDRAP News story "GAO says US barriers to mad cow disease
are full of holes"
.
(see item 1 in 20020303.3671).

[Byline: Robert Roos]

--
ProMED-mail


[The continued use of ruminant-derived MBMs for the feeding of
non-ruminants was regarded, in Europe, as one of the factors allowing
cross-contamination and spillover of BSE-infected material into ruminant feed.

OIE's Terrestrial Animal Health Code (article 2.3.13.2.) specifies the
following requirements related to the BSE exposure assessment in a country,
as follows:

"Exposure assessment consists of assessing the likelihood of exposure of
the BSE agent to cattle, through a consideration of the following:

1. epidemiological situation concerning all animal TSE agents in the
country or zone;

2. recycling and amplification of the BSE agent through consumption by
cattle of meat & bone meal or greaves [crackling, a by-product of fat
rendering] of ruminant origin, or other feed or feed ingredients
contaminated with these;

3. the origin and use of ruminant carcasses (including fallen stock),
by-products and slaughterhouse waste, the parameters of the rendering
processes and the methods of animal feed manufacture;

4. implementation and enforcement of feed bans, including measures to
prevent cross-contamination of animal feed".

The said requirements might undergo changes following the due discussion
during OIE's next General Session, 22 - 26 May 2005. Some countries have
banned the feeding of ruminant-derived MBMs to any food animal. At least in
one case, the ban related to the feeding of all animal-derived meal,
including poultry and fish meals, to all mammals destined for human
consumption -- despite the difficulty of efficiently separating the various
products in rendering plants, storage facilities, during transportation,
and on the farm. - Mod.AS]

[see also:
CJD (new var.) - Netherlands (02): 1st case 20050423.1135
CJD (new var.) - Netherlands: 1st case 20050422.1118
BSE - USA: policy change considered (03) 20050422.1119
BSE policy - USA: change considered (02) 20050420.1105
BSE policy - USA: change considered 20050418.1094
BSE, bovine - Canada (04): OIE 20050125.0272
BSE, bovine - Canada (03) 20050111.0093
BSE, bovine - Canada (02) 20050108.0061
BSE, bovine - Canada 20050102.0004
2004
----
BSE update 2004 (12) 20041208.3258
2002
----
update (03) Mar 2002 20020303.3671]
...............arn/pg/dk


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TSS

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