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From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. (216-119-144-41.ipset24.wt.net)
Subject: Scrapie control under new strain
Date: December 16, 2004 at 10:25 am PST

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Scrapie control under new strain
Date: Thu, 16 Dec 2004 12:20:24 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
To: BSE-L@LISTSERV.KALIV.UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

Scrapie control under new strain

Matthew Baylis and K. Marie McIntyre

Sheep believed to be resistant to scrapie are succumbing to atypical
infections and a newly identified strain of the disease. Eradication
programmes based on selective breeding should be reappraised.


Scrapie is a fatal brain disease of sheep
and goats and is part of the transmis-
sible spongiform encephalopathy
(TSE) family. This family also includes
chronic wasting disease of deer, bovine
spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle
and variant CreutzfeldtIakob disease in
humans. Unlike these relative newcomers,
however, scrapie has been present for more
than 250 years in European sheep flocks and
has spread to many other parts of the world'.

In the 1990s, a proportion of sheep were
found to be genetically resistant to scrapie"'
and, consequently, many countries have
established programmes to create disease-
resistant national flocks by selective breeding.
This new and unusual approach to disease
control needs urgent reappraisal, however, as
recent discoveries in Europe suggest that the
selected sheep might be susceptible to strains
of the disease that arise in the future. Atypical
forms of scrapie have been reported in
'resistant' sheep in Germany3, Portugal4 and
France'5. And a recently discovered strain of
scrapie, called Nor98, is now being detected
in several European countries. Writing in
Journal of General Virology, Mourn and co-
workers6 show that this strain primarily
affects sheep that rarely succumb to conven-
tional scrapie; conversely, typically'suscepti-
ble' sheep seem to be unaffected.

The European Union (EU) is aiming to
eradicate scrapie from its member states
with a combination of two approaches. The
first, which has been compulsory since Oct-
ober 2003, involves eliminating the disease
from currently infected flocks by culling
entire flocks, or by genetic testing and culling
of susceptible animals (Commission Regu-
lation 1915/2003). The second approach,
which will become compulsory from April
2005, has the goal of reducing the chance that
uninfected flocks will become infected in the
future (Commission Decision 2003/100/EC).
As a minimum, rams intended for breeding
in scrapie-free flocks of'high genetic merit'
must be genetically tested, and those whose

genes suggest a susceptibility to scrapie will
be culled, despite being uninfected. This
approach targets rams because the relatively
small number used for breeding provides a
fast means of spreading scrapie-resistant
genes through the sheep population. Bene-
fits are expected to filter gradually into flocks
of lower genetic merit.

In some countries, broadly similar con-
trol programmes have been in operation for
several years. For example, in July 2001 the
UK government launched the National
Scrapie Plan for Great Britain', which, until
the commission regulations came into force,
used the same two-faceted approach but on a
voluntary basis. In the United States, how-
ever, genetic testing is used to eliminate dis-
ease in scrapie-infected flocks, but breeding
programmes involving scrapie-free flocks do
not have to be based on scrapie genetics'. It's
important to get the strategy right: national
programmes to create scrapie-resistant
flocks require the continued goodwill of the

sheep industry, and are expensive. For exam-
ple, more than one million UK sheep have
been genetically tested, at a cost of £19 mil-
lion (US$37 million), during the first three
years of Britain's National Scrapie Plan8, and
£27.5 million has been allocated for this by
the UK government for the next three years.

Whether or not a sheep can succumb to
scrapie is determined by the sequence of
amino acids that form its prion protein,
which is encoded by its PrP gene. Five vari-
ants (called haplotypes) of the PrP gene are
known to affect susceptibility. Sheep that
inherit the ARR haplotype from both par-
ents (ARR/ARR) have the greatest resistance
to conventional scrapie2. Conversely, sheep
inheriting the VRQ haplotype from both
parents (VRQ/VRQ) are extremely suscepti-
ble2 to conventional scrapie and, in some
infected flocks, all such animals would be
expected to die from the disease. Fifteen
types of sheep are definable on the basis of
the pair of PrP haplotypes inherited from
their parents; the extent to which they suc-
cumb to scrapie, as reported in the United
Kingdom, is shown in Figure 1. Commission
Decision 2003/100/EC aims to increase the
frequency of the ARR haplotype and elimi-
nate the VRQ haplotype.

A fundamental assumption of selective
breeding programmes is that 'resistant'
sheep really are, and will remain, resistant to
scrapie. But this assumption is now being
challenged by the new findings3-6 emerging
from mainland Europe. In 2002, many EU
member states began large-scale testing of
sheep in abattoirs for scrapie, using BSE-
detection methods. This surveillance has,
inevitably perhaps, revealed that scrapie is
more widespread than previously believed. It
has also uncovered 'atypical' types9. These
differ from conventional scrapie in several
ways, such as the pattern of deposition in
the brain of the abnormal form of the prion
protein.

graph/chart not available...TSS

Figure 1 Scrapie risks. Variations in the PrP gene
determine the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie. In
the United Kingdom, sheep with the VRQ variant (haplotype)
are most at risk of succumbing to conventional (UK) scrapie.
These sheep appear, however, to be resistant to the new
Nor98 strain, from which sheep with the AHQ haplotype are
instead most at risk. For each genetic type, 'risk' is the
proportional representation in reported scrapie cases,
divided by the proportional representation in
the national flock (UK) or flock mates (Nor98).
Data are from rets 1,6.

Importantly, a few of the atypical cases
are in 'resistant' sheep. Thus, Buschmann
and co-workers' reported two atypical cases
of scrapie in sheep of the ARR/ARR type in
Germany, and Orge and co-workers4
describe a third in Portugal. Three further
cases have been reported in France5. These
discoveries confirm, under natural con-
ditions, a finding made in sheep experimen-
tally inoculated with BSE: ARR/ARR sheep
are not, after all, totally resistant to TSEs10.

These atypical scrapie cases show some
similarity to a new strain of scrapie, first
detected in Norway in 1998 (ref. 11). Moum
and co-workers6 have now genetically tested
all 38 Norwegian Nor98 cases, as well as the
unaffected sheep in the flocks from which
they came, allowing the relative susceptibility
or resistance of each genetic type to be esti-
mated. The results transform our under-
standing of the relationship between PrP
haplotype and scrapie. Sheep that are the
most susceptible to conventional scrapie
appear to be unaffected by Nor98 (Fig. 1).
Conversely, susceptibility to Nor98 is linked
to the AHQ haplotype, which is generally
associated with resistance (or, at most,
low susceptibility) to conventional scrapie.
Nor98 is also being identified over a wider
area in Europe. It has been reported in
Norway, Sweden, Finland and, in November
2004, in Ireland12 and Belgium13.

Encouragingly, there have been no cases
among ARR/ARR sheep, and so it is possible
that national flocks of this genetic type may
be resistant to both conventional and Nor98
scrapie. A warning shot has, however, been
fired. The existence of Nor98 shows that
sheep largely resistant to 'known' strains of
scrapie might be highly susceptible to a novel
strain identified in the future; and the dis-
covery of atypical infections in ARR/ARR
sheep presses the point that we cannot
exclude these sheep from this risk. Larger
epidemics of scrapie tend to be associated
with flocks that have high proportions of
sheep susceptible to the local scrapie strain.
Accordingly, as the ARR haplotype increas-
ingly dominates European sheep popula-
tions, there is a danger that epidemics of
a strain able to attack this haplotype could
be larger than those the region has experi-
enced in the past.

One final point: the existence of the VRQ
haplotype has been enigmatic, as it is not
known to confer any benefits, but is often
fatal for sheep exposed to conventional
scrapie. Why has it not been eliminated from
sheep populations by natural selection? The
findings of Moum et al6 raise the possibi-
lity that this haplotype exists today because
it conferred resistance to past strains. If so,
this is a strong argument for the preserva-
tion of haplotype diversity in sheep popula-
tions, and the long-term control of scrapie
in Europe may be better achieved by the
US approach: eliminating infection with-
in infected flocks and their contacts,
while preserving haplotype diversity at a
national scale.


Matthew Baylis and K. Marie McIntyre are at the
Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury,
Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK.

e-mail: Matthew.baylis@bbsrc.ac.uk

1. Detwiler, L.A. & Baylis M. Rev. Sci. Tech. OIE22, 121-143
(2003).

2 Hunter, N. Trends Microbiol. 5, 331-334 (1997).

3. Buschmann, A. et al. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 2727-2733 (2004).

4. Orge, L. et al. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3487-3491 (2004).

5. Report on the Monitoring and Testing of Ruminants for the
Presence of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) in
the EU in 2003, Including the Result of the Survey of Prion
Protein Genotypes in Sheep Breeds. rep. 04-D-420525
(European Commission Health & Consumer Protection
Directorate-General, Brussels, 2004).

6. Moum, T. et al. Gen. Virol. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.80437-0 (2004)

7. National Scrapie Plan for Great Britain. Schemes Brochure
(Department for Enviroment, Food and Rural Affairs,
London, 2001)

8. National Scrapie Plan. Consultation on the Strategic Review
(Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs,
London, 2004).

9. Buschmann. A. et al. J. Virol. Methods 117, 27-36 (2004).

10. Houston, F, et al Nature 423,498 (2003).

11. Benestad, S. L. et al. Vet. Record 153, 202-208 (2003)

12. Onnasch, H. et al. Vet. Record 155, 636-637 (2004)

13. De Bosschere, H. et al. Vet. Record 155, 707-708 (2004).

NATURE/VOL432/16 DECEMBER 2004/ www.nature.com/nature

2004 Nature Publishing Group/TSS

===========================================================


1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8


Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to
nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of
sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri
sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their
nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic
incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was
36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and
that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and
32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal
cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral
lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has
remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under
observation.

PMID: 6997404

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6997404&dopt=Abstract

12/10/76
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
Office Note
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human
dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12002001.pdf

==========================================

Release No. 0141.02

Ed Curlett (301) 734-3256
Jerry Redding (202) 720-6959


TESTING TO CONTINUE ON IMPORTED SHEEP CONFISCATED LAST YEAR


WASHINGTON, April 11, 2002 -- The U.S. Department of Agriculture today
announced that tests conducted on a flock of sheep confiscated last year
from a farm in Vermont confirm that two of the 125 sheep tested positive
for an atypical undifferentiated transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
(TSE) of foreign origin. The flock of 125 sheep was confiscated in March
2001 after four animals from an associated flock tested positive for TSE
in July 2000. USDA will continue to conduct additional tests to
determine the type of TSE in these sheep.

"These results confirm our previous conclusions were correct and that we
took the appropriate preventative actions in confiscating these
animals," said Bobby Acord, administrator of USDAs Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service. "USDAs actions to confiscate, sample and
destroy these sheep were on target. As a result of our vigilance, none
of these confiscated animals entered the animal or human food supply."

The sheep, imported from Belgium and the Netherlands in 1996, were
placed under certain federal restrictions when they entered the country
as part of USDA's scrapie control efforts. In 1998, USDA learned that it
was likely that sheep from Europe were exposed to feed contaminated with
bovine spongiform encephalopathy. At that time, the state of Vermont, at
the request of USDA, imposed a quarantine on these flocks, which
prohibited slaughter or sale for breeding purposes.

On July 10, 2000, several sheep from the flock tested positive for a
TSE, a class of degenerative neurological diseases that is characterized
by a very long incubation period and a 100 percent mortality rate in
infected sheep. Two of the better known varieties of TSE are scrapie in
sheep and BSE in cattle. There is no evidence that scrapie poses a risk
to human health.

On July 14, 2000, USDA issued a declaration of extraordinary emergency
to acquire the sheep. This action was contested by the flock owners. A
federal district court judge ruled in favor of USDA based on the merits
of the case. The flock owners appealed to the Second Circuit Court
requesting a stay, which was denied. The sheep were confiscated by USDA
in March 2001 and transported to USDA's National Veterinary Services
Laboratories in Ames, Iowa, where they were humanely euthanized. Tissue
samples were collected from the sheep for diagnostic testing and USDA
will continue with additional tests which could take up to 2 - 3 years
to complete. In all, USDA has acquired 380 sheep from a total of three
flocks. All of the animals were humanely euthanized, sampled and
disposed and did not enter the animal or human food supply.

Our goal continues to be to prevent, detect and eradicate foreign animal
diseases to protect American agriculture, natural resources and
consumers," said Acord. "We will continue to utilize the scientific
results of these and other tests conducted during the last several years
to strengthen our extensive surveillance, monitoring and prevention
efforts."

For more information about USDAs ongoing surveillance, monitoring and
prevention efforts as it relates to this situation, please visit
www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/tse/index.html

#


-------- Original Message --------

Subject: Sheep

Date: Sat, 12 Jun 2004 14:26:04 EDT

From: LAVET22@aol.com

To: flounder@wt.net

Mr. Singeltary. I hope this finds you well. As you are aware I left the
USDA last year. I can only update you on the sheep before that time.
Contact was established with the UK on doing the bioassay studies. They
agreed. However, we were prioritized after their own needs, hence the
delay. I am aware that there are now additional labs in Europe running
the mouse bioassay strain typing. You will have to contact USDA for
further word. Linda Detwiler

=========

My reply to Dr. Detwiler;

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Re: Sheep

Date: Sat, 12 Jun 2004 13:53:57 -0500

From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."

To: LAVET22@aol.com

References: <54.2bd2ac1e.2dfca4bc@aol.com>

hello Dr. Detwiler,

thanks for your kind reply.

> However, we were prioritized after their own needs, hence the delay.
not sure i understand that?
> You will have to contact USDA for further word. already done that,
and there answer was;
>5/20/04
> >Dear Mr. Singeltary,
> >The Western blot tests on these animals were completed in April of
this >year. That means that we can begin the mouse inoculations. To get
the >results of the Western blot tests, you will need to submit a
Freedom of >Information Act request through our FOIA office. The FAX
number there is >301-734-5941.
> >Have a nice day,
> >Jim Rogers >APHIS LPA >
and with my previous attempts for information via the FOIA through this
administration (as you are probably very well aware of) they have all
been ignored/refused. so any further attempts would be fruitless i am
sure. thanks anyway...

kindest regards, Terry

===============

MY questions to SEAC about this have failed with no reply ;

-------- Original Message --------

Subject: re-85th Meeting of SEAC - 30.11.04
Date: Thu, 02 Dec 2004 14:18:53 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: tabitha.j.dale@seac.gsi.gov.uk

Hello Tabitha,

A kind greetings from Texas.

I had signed up for the meeting and wanted to ask a question, but it took
me too long to finally get everything working properly on my end with
the viewing. finally got things going today and got into the audio of the
meeting (will have to download an upgrade for my windows media).

ASIDE from the disturbing points made about sCJD not being tied
to BSE from some unpublished mouse bioassays (if i heard that right)
and the fact that they still today base the increase of sporadic CJD in
known BSE countries as a happenstance of better surveillance, I wish
to kindly ask a question not pertaining to the above, as disturbing as
it is (lost my mother to the hvCJD 12/14/97) and i simply have never
accepted the spontaneous/sporadic aspects of this agent in 85%+ of
all humans. never will, it's a pipe dream thought up in some back room
in the 80s to protect the industries involved (my opinion).

MY question is one about the VERMONT USA SHEEP that were
imported to the USA from Belgium and confiscated by the USDA several
years ago due to an atypical TSE, with the announcement that mouse
studies would be immediately started. I was informed by Dr. Linda
Detwiler that it was DEFRA that was responsible for these mouse studies
being put on hold for 2 years.

WHY were such important studies put off for 2 years by DEFRA?

HERE is my correspondence with Dr. Detwiler;

Release No. 0141.02

Ed Curlett (301) 734-3256
Jerry Redding (202) 720-6959


TESTING TO CONTINUE ON IMPORTED SHEEP CONFISCATED LAST YEAR


WASHINGTON, April 11, 2002 -- The U.S. Department of Agriculture today
announced that tests conducted on a flock of sheep confiscated last year
from a farm in Vermont confirm that two of the 125 sheep tested positive
for an atypical undifferentiated transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
(TSE) of foreign origin. The flock of 125 sheep was confiscated in March
2001 after four animals from an associated flock tested positive for TSE
in July 2000. USDA will continue to conduct additional tests to
determine the type of TSE in these sheep.

"These results confirm our previous conclusions were correct and that we
took the appropriate preventative actions in confiscating these
animals," said Bobby Acord, administrator of USDAs Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service. "USDAs actions to confiscate, sample and
destroy these sheep were on target. As a result of our vigilance, none
of these confiscated animals entered the animal or human food supply."

The sheep, imported from Belgium and the Netherlands in 1996, were
placed under certain federal restrictions when they entered the country
as part of USDA's scrapie control efforts. In 1998, USDA learned that it
was likely that sheep from Europe were exposed to feed contaminated with
bovine spongiform encephalopathy. At that time, the state of Vermont, at
the request of USDA, imposed a quarantine on these flocks, which
prohibited slaughter or sale for breeding purposes.

On July 10, 2000, several sheep from the flock tested positive for a
TSE, a class of degenerative neurological diseases that is characterized
by a very long incubation period and a 100 percent mortality rate in
infected sheep. Two of the better known varieties of TSE are scrapie in
sheep and BSE in cattle. There is no evidence that scrapie poses a risk
to human health.

On July 14, 2000, USDA issued a declaration of extraordinary emergency
to acquire the sheep. This action was contested by the flock owners. A
federal district court judge ruled in favor of USDA based on the merits
of the case. The flock owners appealed to the Second Circuit Court
requesting a stay, which was denied. The sheep were confiscated by USDA
in March 2001 and transported to USDA's National Veterinary Services
Laboratories in Ames, Iowa, where they were humanely euthanized. Tissue
samples were collected from the sheep for diagnostic testing and USDA
will continue with additional tests which could take up to 2 - 3 years
to complete. In all, USDA has acquired 380 sheep from a total of three
flocks. All of the animals were humanely euthanized, sampled and
disposed and did not enter the animal or human food supply.

Our goal continues to be to prevent, detect and eradicate foreign animal
diseases to protect American agriculture, natural resources and
consumers," said Acord. "We will continue to utilize the scientific
results of these and other tests conducted during the last several years
to strengthen our extensive surveillance, monitoring and prevention
efforts."

For more information about USDAs ongoing surveillance, monitoring and
prevention efforts as it relates to this situation, please visit
www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/tse/index.html


#...end/


NOW, June 2004 those same test that we were told would start in
2002, have yet to be started. THE TSE those VERMONT sheep
was supposedly to have had, has yet to be confirmed.

WHY?

Correspondence from Dr. Detwiler to me;

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Sheep
Date: Sat, 12 Jun 2004 14:26:04 EDT
From: LAVET22@aol.com
To: flounder@wt.net

Mr. Singeltary.

I hope this finds you well. As you are aware I left the USDA last
year. I can only update you on the sheep before that time. Contact was
established with the UK on doing the bioassay studies. They agreed.
However, we were prioritized after their own needs, hence the delay. I
am aware that there are now additional labs in Europe running the mouse
bioassay strain typing. You will have to contact USDA for further word.


Linda Detwiler
=========


>However, we were prioritized after their own needs, hence the delay.


IF this was the case, this is totally unacceptable. FOR something that
has been ongoing since the 80s (BSE in SHEEP/GOATS) yet still unresolved,
there is absolutely no excuse why these studies were put off. with the
other sheep
brain mix-up and now the BSE in the French Goat, I find it very
disturbing that the
Vermont Sheep studies were put off for 2 years for whatever reason,
especially
with the findings Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent
responsible for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD
taken as a control is very different from vCJD but is similar to that
found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1


YES, i am still very angry, but i want to still thank SEAC for the work
they have done, i only wish things would go much faster and that the
BSE/nvCJD only theory would be put to rest once and for all. Science
has pretty much proven that it was a pipe dream, however science
does not have near as much to do with this mess anymore as the
industry and politics do. it's simply not about science anymore.
IN the USA, you dont even hear of these new studies from the
Gov. and very little from the media...

thank you,
kindest regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, TEXAS USA 77518

############## BSE-L-subscribe-request@kaliv.uni-karlsruhe.de ##############

Infected and Source Flocks

As of September 30, 2004, there were 67 scrapie infected and source flocks (figure 3 ). There were a total of 100** new infected and source flocks reported for FY 2004 (figure 4 ). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2004 are 77 (figure 5 ). The percent of new infected and source flocks cleaned up or on clean up plans was 96%. In addition, as of September 30, 2004, 368 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in FY 2004, of which 54 were RSSS cases (figure 6 , and figure 7 ). Thirteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (figure 8 ). One new goat case was reported in FY 2004. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released for FY 2004 are depicted in chart 4 . One new goat case was reported in FY 2004. Approximately 3,058 animals were indemnified comprised of 47% non-registered sheep, 44% registered sheep, 6% non-registered goats and 1% registered goats.

Scrapie: Ovine Slaughter Surveillance (SOSS)

The Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) released the results of the Phase II: SOSS study http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cahm/Sheep/sheep.htm. The objective of SOSS was to estimate the national and regional prevalence of scrapie in mature cull ewes. Prior to the SOSS study, the prevalence of scrapie in the United States was estimated to be 0.07 percent (based on information from NAHMS Sheep 96, unpublished data). The SOSS study estimate for the national prevalence in mature ewes is 0.20 percent. The prevalence phase of the SOSS study started April 1, 2002, and continued through March 31, 2003. During this time period, samples were collected from 12,508 mature sheep at 22 slaughter facilities, as well as a major livestock market.

Of the 12,508 sheep tested, 33* were found to be scrapie positive: 27 black face; 3 mottled face; 1* white face; and 2 of unknown face color. Note: The raw prevalence is higher than the weighted prevalence. The difference is the result of weighting each positive based on the number of sheep sampled and the number of sheep killed at each plant.

Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS)
RSSS started April 1, 2003. It is a targeted slaughter surveillance program which is designed to identify infected flocks for clean-up. Samples have been collected from 34,661 sheep since April 1, 2003, of which results have been reported for 28,677. Samples have been submitted from 42 plants (figure 9 ). The state identified on the tag of sampled animals is shown in figure 10 . There have been 77 NVSL confirmed positive sheep. There have been 54 NVSL confirmed positive cases in FY 2004. Face colors of these positives were 46 black, 6 mottled, and 2 white. The Six Month Rolling Average of Percent Scrapie Positive Black and Mottled Faced Sheep is shown in chart 6 . The number of RSSS samples collected by month**, region and total in FY 2004 are shown in chart 7 .

Scrapie Testing

In FY 2004, 28,430 animals have been tested for scrapie: 25,178 RSSS; 2,687 regulatory field cases; 461 regulatory third eyelid biopsies; 13 third eyelid validations; and 91 necropsy validations (chart 8 ).

Animal ID

As of September 30, 2004, 90,322 sheep and goat premises have been assigned identification numbers in the Scrapie National Generic Database. Official eartags have been issued to 64,040 of these premises.

NOTES:
*This number was decreased by one case as a result of a clerical error compared to the FY 2003 annual report.
**Differences appear between this report and the September 2004 report due to late reporting of RSSS testing and quality review of status data
As of May 2004 we are reporting only NVSL confirmed positive cases.


http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/yearly_report/yearly-report.html

TSS




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