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From: TSS (
Subject: A year later, dying Green Beret remains strong
Date: November 29, 2004 at 6:56 am PST

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: A year later, dying Green Beret remains strong
Date: Mon, 29 Nov 2004 08:30:37 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

A year later, dying Green Beret remains strong

Staff Writer

Staff Sgt. James Alford shouldn't be alive today.

A year ago the Green Beret, who was awarded a Bronze Star in
Afghanistan, wasn't expected to live past New Year's Day. The
dark-haired Special Forces soldier lay in a hospital bed at his parent's
home in Karnack, Texas, a victim of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, usually
known as CJD. It's a rare and insidious brain disorder that causes
progressive dementia and immobility.

Death is a certainty with this disease, which assaults the brain in a
manner similar to what happens to livestock that have contracted mad cow

''Everybody said he would be gone soon,'' said John Alford, the staff
sergeant's father.

While the disease's grip on his mind and body remains firmly clenched,
James Alford is, somehow, just as tenacious.

On Nov. 2, the former Fort Campbell soldier turned 26. While doctors
still say it's a matter of time before the disease destroys his brain
and short-circuits the involuntary beating of his heart, Alford
continues to amaze his family with his silent determination.

''He's strong and he's getting the best of care. That's the reason,''
said his wife, Amber, also a soldier at Fort Campbell.

Gail Alford believes her son may also have been helped by an
experimental drug therapy he began receiving in March. Every six weeks
he has been taken to Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force
Base in San Antonio, where doctors have pumped a few drops of the drug,
pentosan polysulfate, into a shunt leading to his brain. Researchers
discovered that the drug, usually used for relief of chronic bladder
inflammation, could also be used to stall effects of CJD.

The soldier was the first American to receive the experimental regimen.

''It's a combination, I think, of the drugs and that he is just so
tough,'' Gail observed.

''Basically, though, we just take it a day at a time. The outcome is
going to be the same. It's a question of how long, how many days do we
get with him.''

More than two years have passed since symptoms began to show between May
and August 2002. The Alfords feel fortunate in some ways because many
times the disease kills in months.

But, in other ways, watching the staff sergeant's gradual decline from a
man who used to run marathons to a semi-comatose invalid dependent on a
feeding tube for nourishment, has been cruel, a heartbreak every day.

Alford's decline began innocently enough. He became forgetful. He missed
meetings and deadlines, and forgot his wedding anniversary. He lost a
$600 assault vest. In December 2002, he faced his superiors to answer
why he had gone AWOL from a class.

The young soldier was demoted a rank for that.

When he left for Iraq early in 2003 with his unit, effects of the
disease intensified. By February, superiors had resorted to ordering him
to always carry a notepad so he could write down instructions. The
problems only escalated. He failed to show up for duty, and simple
errands took hours. The young man, who had been an ideal soldier in
Afghanistan, was now the unit foul-up.

An Army doctor and psychiatrist found nothing wrong with him, but Alford
couldn't stay on task. Finally, his exasperated commander sent him home,
to be drummed out of the career he had craved since he was a boy.

Back home, two months passed before doctors could put a name to the
disease that was eroding his mind and body. Having a name didn't reveal
how he contracted CJD, however.

Unfortunately, the source probably will remain a mystery, although the
family believes it's likely he contracted the disease while deployed.
He's been in England several times, where more than 125 people have
contracted CJD from eating beef from cows that were fed products
rendered from scrapie-infected sheep. Scrapie is a form of
encephalopathy, a disease of the brain that alters brain structure or
function. In cows, the disease is bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or
mad cow disease.

Questions also arose about vaccines for anthrax and diphtheria that
Alford received. The vaccines were made from fetal calf serum in
countries known to have mad cow cases. However, the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration said there has been no evidence linking such vaccines to
the transmission of CJD.

Finally, Alford, while he could still talk, told his family that he ate
a sheep's brain while deployed to a Middle Eastern country. But the
federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said there's no
evidence that CJD can be transmitted directly to a human from a sheep.

After the diagnosis, the Army's 5th Special Forces Group backtracked on
disciplining the sergeant. His rank was returned, retroactive to the day
he was demoted.

''His leaders have been great ever since. They are true champions,''
John Alford said.

For the time being, James Alford is still on active duty, but the Army
has indicated that it would like to medically discharge him. The Alfords
will fight that suggestion, if nothing more than for the principle of
the matter.

''He is a wounded soldier,'' John Alford said.

After stories about Alford were published last year, hundreds of cards,
letters and e-mails of support flowed in to the family's East Texas home
near Caddo Lake.

''They are still coming,'' his father said.

''People come from as far as Dallas just to visit with him. They tell
him thanks. For a long time we had a lady from Las Vegas that called us
every Friday or Saturday to get an update. She wanted to tell her church
on Sunday morning.''

Leon Alligood can be reached at 259-8279 or at

############## ##############


>Questions also arose about vaccines for anthrax and diphtheria that
Alford received. The vaccines were made from fetal calf serum in
countries known to have mad cow cases. However, the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration said there has been no evidence linking such vaccines to
the transmission of CJD.<

NOW, lets look at the truth;

From: TSS (
Subject: MAD COW DISEASE, SMALLPOX VACCINE (Dried Calf Lymph Type) and TSEs
Date: December 15, 2002 at 9:52 am PST

Subject: MAD COW DISEASE, SMALLPOX VACCINE (Dried Calf Lymph Type)
and TSEs
Date: Sun, 15 Dec 2002 11:37:55 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########


with the threat of terrorism and the recent news of the SMALLPOX
vaccine being distributed, and the fact we may all be faced with
the real possibility of having to make a decision whether or not
to take this vaccine, i got to thinking of what the ingredients
in the smallpox vaccine might be. never could really get a clear
picture of what the actual ingredient might be from start of process
to end product. with more and more _bad_ news of other tissues having
the potential to carry enough infectivity to be lethal, i thought
it would be nice to know what we are really getting ourselves into.
i found a little about smallpox vaccine and posted below. i am not sure
if any of this is still in use, but i would be most curious to know;

what the ingredients of the smallpox vaccine the USA is going to be
distributing from start to end product might be?

the source country of those ingredients?

the process or processes used to kill the TSE agent from start to finish?

or (without trying to be sarcastic), under the new Bush anti terrorism
plan (re-USA mad cow feed ban warning letters via F.O.I.A. only now),
do i have to go through the F.O.I.A. act to find this out as well???

thank you,
kind regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

8. The Secretary of State has a number of licences. We understand that
the inactivated polio vaccine is no longer being used. There is a stock
of smallpox vaccine. We have not been able to determine the source
material. (Made in sheep very unlikely to contain bovine ingredients).

although 176 products do _not_ conform to the CSM/VPC

5.23 This alerted Sir Donald Acheson to the fact that concerns about the
safety of vaccines had not yet been resolved. He contacted Dr Pickles,
and their conversation led him to ask Dr Harris to look into the matter:
My attention has been drawn to a sentence in Dr Pickles' draft of a
submission to the Secretary of State on this matter. It reads: 'At the
present time we can't give any complete guarantee of safety for human
medicines that use bovine materials in manufacture such as most
vaccines.' Having looked at the report I am not able to find any
statement which supports this statement of concern. I have, however,
therefore spoken to Dr Pickles on the telephone and she reports to me
that for some considerable time she has had serious concern about the
safety of bovine-based vaccines in the light of the fact it has been
discovered that contamination with placental material (which is known to
be heavily infected with the BSE particle) is a distinct possibility in
the preparation of material for human vaccines derived from foetal
serum. This matter as described to me by Dr Pickles gives me sufficient
cause for concern to ask you to look into it urgently together with
Medicines Division. I shall amend the submission to indicate that the
question of the safety of vaccines derived from bovine material is a
matter which has not been dealt with directly by Southwood's group, but
is one in which I am making urgent enquiries. 22


3.5 Animal vaccine-related Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy risks:

Scrapie outbreak in Italy

Maurizio Pocchiari:

Historically, Italy has had a low incidence of scrapie; however, in 1997
there was a dramatic increase in the number of reported flocks. This
increase in reports included a relatively high proportion of goat
flocks, generally considered more resistant to natural scrapie than
sheep. Details of the timing of the flock outbreaks, composition of the
flocks and vaccination status were provided. It was noted that
vaccination for Mycoplasma agalactiae was provided to a large proportion
of the flocks developing scrapie, and that this vaccine is made from
sheep brain and mammary gland. Small batches of brain and mammary glands
are mixed, and given subcutaneously to adult and young animals,
providing considerable possible exposure to contaminated material. Some
flocks receiving this vaccine did not develop scrapie, and western blot
and transmission experiments are underway. However, the consultation
agreed that the epidemiologic evidence points toward a vaccine origin
for the scrapie disease seen in some of the flocks.


7.6 Could vaccines prepared from animal brain tissue pose a risk of
transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to humans?
François Meslin:

Over 40,000 deaths due to rabies are reported annually worldwide and
each year seven to eight million people receive antirabies vaccine
treatment following dog bites. Dog rabies poses a significant public
health problem in Asia, as 85% of the human deaths due to rabies
reported worldwide and 80% of the vaccine doses applied in
developing countries come from this part of the world.
In many Asian countries such as Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan,
sheep-brain based Semple vaccine 15 is the only vaccine available free
of cost. It represents 50 to 95% of all vaccine doses used for rabies
post-exposure treatment, depending upon the country. A complete
treatment consists of 10 subcutaneous daily injections
of 2 to 5 ml (depending mainly on patient size and nature of the
exposure) plus booster doses; that is a total of 25 to 50 ml of the 5 %
sheep brain suspension injected over a 10-day period.
According to the literature, the reported rate of neuroparalytic
complications following the use of this vaccine varies from 1:600 to
1:1575 administrations, and 20-25% of these lead to death. The exact
incidence of neuroparalytic complications throughout India or other
countries in the area is not known. However, in the State of
Karnataka, India, 112 cases of neuroparalytic accidents were admitted in
the past 20 years following Semple vaccine administration. In contrast,
the newly developed cell culture or embryonating egg vaccines are
effective and safe, with lower and less severe complication rates.
In many Asian countries, Semple type vaccine has been used for the past
90 years. In India forty million ml of this vaccine are produced in this
country to treat at least 500 000 persons each year. In Pakistan 450 000
and in Bangladesh 60 000 people receive Semple type vaccine after
possible exposure to rabies. There is a theoretical risk of TSE
transmission to humans through parenteral administration of
these products. Although there is to date no evidence of such
occurrences in human medicine, recent events in the TSE field have
demonstrated that an animal TSE agent could affect human beings.
The situation is very similar regarding rabies vaccines for animal use.
For example various Indian veterinary vaccine institutes prepare 100
million ml of Semple vaccine for use in both rabies pre-and
post-exposure prophylaxis in dogs and food production animals each year.
Scrapie could be theoretically transmitted to animal vaccine recipients,
especially ruminants, through sheep-brain based vaccines such as
Semple type vaccine. This could happen because scrapie infectivity, if
present, would not be inactivated by the manufacturing process. In this
connection, a recent 15 Ãx-propiolactone inactivated or phenolized
antirabies vaccine containing 5% suspension of sheep brain infected with
a fixed strain of rabies virus.


34 WHO Consultation on Public Health and Animal TSEs
Epidemiology, Risk and Research Requirements

publication strongly suggests that scrapie was transmitted to sheep and
goats through the administration of a veterinary vaccine whose method of
preparation is similar to the Semple type vaccine. In addition, various
Asian countries have begun to use animal tissues as feed supplement for
intensive sheep and dairy cattle production. This introduces an
additional, though still theoretical, possibility that scrapie, or even
BSE, could spread among the sheep population and enter the sheep flocks
that are used as a source of rabies vaccine production for human or
animal use. In areas where the status of animal TSE is not well
documented, this risk cannot be totally ruled out, though it may be
remote, as there is no test available at present to detect
pre-clinical cases of prion disease in sheep.


Recommendation 25

Human vaccines prepared from whole ruminant brains may carry the risk of
transmission of animal TSE agents, because the inactivation processes
usually applied to these products do not inactivate TSE agents. In
particular, considering the recent emergence of vCJD in humans related
to BSE in cattle, the consultation recommends that the use of these
vaccines should be avoided if suitable alternatives can be made
available. The Consultation strongly supported the recommendation made
by WHO Expert Committee on Rabies, which states:

"The (Expert) Committee reiterated, as stated in its 1983 report, its
support for the trend to limit or abandon completely - where
economically and technically possible - the production of
encephalitogenic brain-tissue vaccines, and strongly advocated the
production and use of inactivated cell-culture rabies vaccines in both
developed and developing countries."

Recommendation 26

The use of veterinary vaccines prepared from whole ruminant brains, for
use in ruminants, should be avoided unless the process ensures TSE
inactivation and/or removal, or the source animals have been
demonstrated to be free of any TSE.


Iatrogenic transmission of BSE has not been reported, or even suspected,
in cattle but there are some definite occurrences of scrapie in sheep
that have been reliably attributed to the use of non-commercial vaccines
containing ovine starting materials. For this reason, the issue is
discussed below. Other forms of iatrogenic transmission of TSE have been
restricted to humans and human tissues. For the sake of completeness and
convenience, these subjects are briefly discussed below.

Reference has already been made to the occurrence of at least several
hundred cases of scrapie in British sheep as a direct result of the use
of a vaccine against the tick transmitted, viral disease, louping-ill
(Gordon, Brownlee and Wilson, 1939, Gordon, 1946 and Greig, 1950). This
occurrence resulted from the accidental use of scrapie-infected source
material and processing methods that did not inactivate the scrapie
agent that was unknowingly present. A more recent possible occurrence of
possible iatrogenic scrapie has recently been reported in Etna Silver
crossbred goats in Italy by Cappucchio et al., (1998). The goats were
kept at grass and concentrate rations were not fed, thus eliminating a
source of infection from feed via mammalian proteins. Animals over two
months old were annually vaccinated against contagious agalactia caused
by Mycoplasma agalactiae. The vaccine included central nervous system
from pathogen-free sheep. The mortality rate in the goats reached
28% in 1 herd, 60% in the second and 5.5% in a third herd. About half
the 56 goats were between 2.5 - 3 years old. Only 1.15% of sheep that
were kept with the goats developed scrapie. Scrapie was confirmed by
microscopic examination of the brain and by detection of PrPSc including
by immunocytochemistry. PrPSc was widespread in the brain and beyond
sites of vacuolar change. The high mortality, severe loss of weight and
simultaneous appearance in the three herds were distinctly unusual
features in this outbreak. The source of infection remains uncertain and
unproven but iatrogenic transmission must be considered.
A larger epidemic involving 20 outbreaks of scrapie in sheep and goats,
also in Italy, has been even more recently reported by Agrimi et al.,
(1999). The annual incidence ranged from 1% to 90% with a mean incidence
for goats of 26% and for sheep of 10%. The total number of cases in
sheep and goats together was 1040. The clinical disease was confirmed by
microscopic examination of the brain and PrP immunocytochemistry or
Western blotting. The high incidence in goats, the high
within-flock/herd incidence, the temporal clustering, absence of
commercial concentrate feeding in eight flocks and association with the
use of a sub-cutaneously administered M. agalactiae vaccine, prepared
locally using brain and mammary tissue from clinically healthy sheep,
strongly suggests an iatrogenic origin. Scrapie appeared between 23 and
35 months after the vaccine was administered. A third outbreak in
southern Italy attributed also to the same vaccine has been described by
Caramelli et al, (2001) in a mixed flock of Comisana sheep and half-bred
goats in an upland area of southern Italy. High crude mortality and
scrapie incidence occurred in both species and a large proportion of
aged animals were affected. The neuropathology was similar to that in
other sheep in Italy with iatrogenic disease but different from
conventional natural scrapie. Affected sheep were all of the most
susceptible genotype (Codon 171 QQ). It is stressed that the vaccines
incriminated in the transmission of scrapie in all these incidents are
not commercially produced. They have been prepared and distributed
locally within the country. Dr Subash Arya has repeatedly drawn
attention to the possible risk of transmitting CJD to humans vaccinated
with sheep-brain derived vaccines in India, e.g. Arya, (1994). However,
neither Dr Arya nor any of his colleagues has yet found any such case.
The episodes of scrapie resulting from the use of vaccines prepared from
infected sheep tissues emphasises the need for caution and mandatory
selection of safe sources for starting materials used in the manufacture
of vaccines. Such vaccines could theoretically at least, be used in
cattle thus creating a potential risk, though it is most unlikely that
they would be licensed for this purpose in Europe. Vaccines have not
been incriminated in the transmission of BSE (Wilesmith et al., 1988,
J.W.Wilesmith, personal communication). Furthermore, large numbers of
doses of commercially produced vaccines that have used bovine starting
materials, have been inoculated by parenteral and oral routes into
cattle throughout the world and a substantial proportion have been
produced in Europe, but no incident of BSE has been attributed to their
use. This is important because, since there is no species barrier, any
chink in the armour protecting vaccines from contamination would have
been revealed, but none has.

Animal sources of material used in medicinal products vary, but mostly
are derived from cattle. There is thus at least a possibility that
unless strict precautions are taken, disease could be transmitted in
this way. It cannot be ruled out that no case ever arose by this means,
but it is clear that the majority did not, even at the very beginning of
the BSE epidemic before publication of information on BSE, and before
any legislation was in place (Wilesmith et al., 1988). The highest risk
tissue is bovine brain from a clinically affected animal or one in the
immediate pre-clinical phase. Posterior pituitary extract (now prepared
biosynthetically), was available and used in veterinary practice mainly
in adult female cattle at the time of parturition, to assist treatment
of retained placenta or to assist in milk let down. However, no
association was found between its use and the occurrence of BSE
(Wilesmith et al., 1988).

Indian J Pediatr 1991 Sep-Oct;58(5):563-5

Arya SC.

Centre for Logistical Research and Innovation, Greater Kailash, New Delhi.

BMJ 1996 Nov 30;313(7069):1405

Comment on:

* BMJ. 1996 Aug 24;313(7055):441.

Blood donated after vaccination with rabies vaccine derived from
sheep brain cells might transmit CJD.

Arya SC.

BMJ 1996;313:1405 (30 November)
Blood donated after vaccination with rabies vaccine derived from sheep
brain cells might transmit CJD
EDITOR,--Janet Morgan reports that the National Blood Authority in
Britain has decided to tighten the donor screening programme to exclude
transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or its variant through blood
donations.1 Prospective donors will be prevented from donating blood if
they have a history of treatment with human growth hormone or if one of
their siblings, parents, or grandparents developed the disease. I would
point out that similar care should also be taken when immigrants from
Asia and Africa offer to donate blood, in case they received rabies
vaccine derived from culture of sheep brain cells when they were living
in their country of origin.

In many countries in Asia and Africa limited supplies of imported rabies
vaccines derived from culture of human cells have been available. Many
people continue to be offered indigenously produced sheep brain vaccine
after exposure to a rabid animal. Scrapie is known to exist in sheep
around many centres where the vaccine is produced. In the mountain sheep
of the Kumaon foothills in the Himalayas, for example, scrapie was
established more than four decades ago and 1-10% of the flock was
reported to have the disease in 1961.2 In the Himalayan foothills the
Central Research Institute continues to produce four to five million
doses of sheep brain vaccine annually. Transmission of abnormal prion
protein, PrPsc, in sheep brain vaccine might have occurred in some of
the 30 documented cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in different
regions in India.3 Because Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has a latency of
about 20 years, many recipients of sheep brain rabies vaccine could
emigrate to Britain before becoming ill.

Before accepting blood donations from immigrants it would be desirable
to ask the potential donors whether they were exposed to a rabid animal
and immunised with sheep brain rabies vaccine in their country of
origin. Furthermore, indirect assessment should be possible through, for
example, assay looking for antibodies specific to rabies.

Clinical microbiologist Centre for Logistical Research and Innovation,
M-122 (of part 2), Greater Kailash-II, New Delhi-110048, India

Subhash C Arya

: Neuroepidemiology 1991;10(1):27-32

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in India (1971-1990).

Satishchandra P, Shankar SK.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India.

Thirty cases including 20 definite and 10 probable cases of
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) seen in India between 1971 and 1990 are
reported. Demographic analysis has shown similarities to the previously
published reports from other parts of the world. Though 21 (70%) of
cases were from two centers--Bombay and Bangalore-, suggesting
clustering, this seems to be more apparent than real. One subject worked
in the medical field, where possibility of iatrogenic transmission could
not be ruled out. None of the cases had positive family history of CJD.
There is no epidemiological data of CJD from India so far and hence this
report is one such pilot study.

i recieved the 1947 report of the Louping-ill vaccine
incident and posted on www here;

Louping-ill vaccine (scrapie transmission by vaccine)

516 No 47. Vol. 58
November 23rd, 1946




The enquiry made the position clear. Scrapie was developing in
the sheep vaccinated in 1935 and it was only in a few instances
that the owner was associating the occurrence with louping-ill
vaccination. The disease was affecting all breeds and it was
confined to the animals vaccinated with batch 2. This was clearly
demonstrated on a number of farms on which batch 1 had been
used to inoculate the hoggs in 1935 and batch 2 to inoculate
the ewes. None of the hoggs, which at this time were three-
year-old ewes. At this time it was difficult to forecast whether all
of the 18,000 sheep which had received batch 2 vaccine would
develop scrapie. It was fortunate, however, that the majority of
the sheep vaccinated with batch 2 were ewes and therfore all
that were four years old and upwards at the time of vaccination
had already been disposed of and there only remained the ewes
which had been two to three years old at the time of vaccination,
consequently no accurate assessment of the incidence of scrapie
could be made. On a few farms, however, where vaccination was
confined to hoggs, the incidence ranged from 1 percent, to 35 percent,
with an average of about 5 percent. Since batch 2 vaccine
had been incriminated as a probable source of scrapie infection,
an attempt was made to trace the origin of the 112 sheep whose
tissues had been included in the vaccine. It was found that they
had been supplied by three owners and that all were of the
Blackface or Greyface breed with the exception of eight which
were Cheviot lambs born in 1935 from ewes which had been in
contact with scrapie infection. Some of these contact ewes
developed scrapie in 1936-37 and three surviving fellow lambs to
the eight included in the batch 2 vaccine of 1935 developed
scrapie, one in September, 1936, one in February, 1937, and one
in November, 1937. There was, therefore, strong presumptive
evidence that the eight Cheviot lambs included in the vaccine
althought apparently healthy were, in fact, in the incubative stage
of a scrapie infection and that in their tissues there was an
infective agent which had contaminated the batch 2 vaccine,
rendering it liable to set up scrapie. If that assumption was
correct then the evidence indicated that:-

(1) the infective agent of scrapie was present in the brain, spinal
cord and or spleen of infected sheep:
(2) it could withstand a concentration of formalin of 0-35 percent,
which inactivated the virus of louping-ill:
(3) it could be transmitted by subcutaneous inoculation;
(4) it had an incubative period of two years and longer.

Two Frenchmen, Cuille & Chelle (1939) as the result of experiments
commenced in 1932, reported the successful infection of
sheep by inoculation of emulsions of spinal cord or brain material
by the intracerebral, epidural, intraocular and subcutaneous routes
The incubation period varied according to the route employed,
being one year intracerebrally, 15 months intraocularly and 20
months subcutaneously. They failed to infect rabbits but succeeded
in infecting goats. Another important part of their work
showed that the infective agent could pass throught a chamberland
1.3 filter, thus demonstrating that the infective agent was a
filtrable virus. It was a curious coincidence that while they
were doing their transmission experiments their work was being
confirmed by the unforeseeable infectivity of a formalinized tissue

As a result of this experience a large-scale transmision experiment
involving the ue of 788 sheep was commenced in 1938 on a
farm specially taken for the purpose by the Animal Diseases
Research Association with funds provided by the Agricultural
Research Council. The experiment was designed to determine the
nature of the infective agent and the pathogenesis of the disease.
It is only possible here to give a summary of the result which
showed that (1) saline suspensions of brain and spinal cord tissue
of sheep affected with scrapie were infective to normal sheep
when inoculatted intracerebrally or subcutaneously; (2) the incubation
period after intracerebral inoculation was seven months and
upwards and only 60 percent of the inoculated sheep developed
scrapie during a period of four and a half years; (3) the incubation
period after subcutaneous inoculation was 15 months and upwards
and only about 30 percent of the inoculated sheep developed
the disease during the four and a half years: (4) the infective
agent was of small size and probably a filtrable virus.

The prolonged incubative period of the disease and the remarkable
resistance of the causal agent to formalin are features of
distinct interest. It still remains to determine if a biological test
can be devised to detect infected animals so that they can be
killed for food before they develop clinical symptoms and to
explore the possibilities of producing an immunity to the disease...


Furthermore, we showed that
the strain responsible for iCJD is closely related to that of one
patient with sCJD, and, more unexpectedly, that these agents were
similar to the French scrapie strain studied (but different from the
U.S. scrapie strain).

Human vaccine prepared in animal brains

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: BSE was passaged through macaque monkeys and
then adapted to the prosimian microcebe (Microcebus murinus ). Brain
homogenate and buffy coat from an affected microcebe were separately
inoculated intracerebrally into three healthy microcebes (two animals
received brain and one received buffy coat).

RESULTS: All three inoculated microcebes became ill after incubation
periods of 16 to 18 months. Clinical, histopathologic, and
immunocytologic features were similar in each of the recipients.

CONCLUSION: Buffy coat from a symptomatic microcebe infected 17 months
earlier with BSE contained the infectious agent. This observation
represents the first documented transmission of BSE from the blood of an
experimentally infected primate, which in view of rodent buffy coat
infectivity precedents and the known host range of BSE is neither
unexpected nor cause for alarm.

Subject: BSE--U.S. 50 STATE CONFERENCE CALL Jan. 9, 2001
Date: Tue, 9 Jan 2001 16:49:00 -0800
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE-L


[host Richard Barns]
and now a question from Terry S. Singeltary of
CJD Watch.

yes, thank you,
U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you
give for serum or tissue donor herds?

[no answer, you could hear in the back ground,
mumbling and 'we can't. have him ask the question

[host Richard]
could you repeat the question?

U.S. cattle, what kind of guarantee can you
give for serum or tissue donor herds?

[not sure whom ask this]
what group are you with?

CJD Watch, my Mom died from hvCJD and we are
tracking CJD world-wide.

[not sure who is speaking]
could you please disconnect Mr. Singeltary

you are not going to answer my question?

[not sure whom speaking]


Meanwhile, health officials with the Food and Drug Administration say
the method of manufacturing the old vaccine, called Dryvax, which was
made by Wyeth using calf skin, is "no longer considered optimal."
Instead, the agency says the new smallpox vaccine "will be prepared in
MRC-5 cells"  a line of aborted fetal cells dating back to 1966 
because that method is more efficient.

"The MRC-5 line was developed & from lung tissue taken from a 14-week
fetus aborted for psychiatric reasons from a 27-year-old physically
healthy woman," said a description of the cell tissue by the Coriell
Institute for Medical Research at the University of Medicine and
Dentistry of New Jersey, where the line is maintained. The institute
further describes it as "normal human fetal lung fibroblast."

SMALLPOX VACCINE, Dried, Calf Lymph Type
Summary of Package Insert

Dryvax, Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta, PA (1960)

brilliant green:

calf lymph

chloriatracycline hydrochloride;
dihydrostreptomycin sulfate;
neomycin sulfate;
polymixin B sulfate.


########### ############

From: TSS (
Date: December 16, 2002 at 6:37 am PST

In Reply to: MAD COW DISEASE, SMALLPOX VACCINE (Dried Calf Lymph Type) and TSEs posted by TSS on December 15, 2002 at 9:52 am:

Humans may catch mad cow from sheep

December 13 2002 at 07:41PM

London - The number of people with a human form of mad-cow disease could be much higher than originally thought, according to a new study.

Since 1990, there have been 117 confirmed deaths in Britain from the variant CJD, which until now was assumed to be the only disease linked to eating BSE-infected beef.

But scientists at the Medical Research Council's Prion Unit in London believe they have identified links between BSE and a second type of the human brain disease - sporadic CJD.

The government's latest figures show that from 1990 to November this year, 588 people died from sporadic CJD, including 28 in 1990, 63 in 1998, and 53 last year.

'Some patients with sporadic CJD may have a disease arising from BSE exposure'
The scientists, led by Professor John Collinge, cast further doubt on the safety of sheep meat by suggesting that more animals - including humans -could carry and transmit the diseases than previously thought.

The researchers wrote: "It remains of considerable concern whether BSE has transmitted to, and is being maintained in, European sheep flocks".

They said that given the widespread infection of sheep breeds with scrapie, it was possible some had contracted BSE but that this infection had been hidden by the other disease.

A full study is needed of all the tonsils surgically removed over a 12-month period - around 80 000 - to map the extent of CJD infection in the population, the Medical Research Council argued.

The British Department of Health is thought to be considering such a plan. The research team used a series of experiments on mice that had been genetically altered so they would display the human effects of a prion - an infectious protein. The "transgenic" mice were then exposed to BSE-infected material and the changes in the prion protein were monitored.

As expected, some developed vCJD, but the researchers wrote that, surprisingly, other mice showed effects of sporadic CJD. "These data suggest that more than one BSE-derived prion strain might infect humans; it is therefore possible that some patients with sporadic CJD may have a disease arising from BSE exposure," they wrote.

The researchers said their findings were important when considering the present sporadic CJD outbreak in Switzerland, which had the highest incidence of cattle BSE in Europe over the past 12 years.

There was a two-fold increase in sporadic CJD in the last 18 months in Switzerland, while cases of vCJD remain low, a spokesman for the MRC said. - Sapa-DPA


>Finally, Alford, while he could still talk, told his family that he ate
a sheep's brain while deployed to a Middle Eastern country. But the
federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said there's no
evidence that CJD can be transmitted directly to a human from a sheep.<

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

PMID: 6997404

Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates
and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for
human health

THE findings from Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*,
Virginie Nouvel*,

Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger

] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique

Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys* et al, that The agent responsible
for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is
very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of
sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate;

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: SCRAPIE USDA 1976 (no scrapie sheep or goats to be processed for human/animal consumption) NOT!
Date: Tue, 10 Aug 2004 15:06:45 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Office Note


A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer



CJD CASE 1977 ? (notes)


in the USA, a 16 year old in 1978;


(20 year old died from sCJD in USA in 1980 and a 16 year
old in 1981. see second url below)

in France, a 19 year old in 1982;

in Canada, a 14 year old of UK origin in 1988;

in Poland, cases in people aged 19, 23, and 27 were identified in
a retrospective study (published 1991), having been originally
misdiagnosed with a viral encephalitis;

Creutzfeldt's first patient in 1923 was aged 23.


20 year old died from sCJD in USA in 1980 and a 16 year
old in 1981. A 19 year old died from sCJD in
France in 1985. There is no evidence of an iatrogenic
cause for those cases....


>The U.S. Department of
>Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
>scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
>for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"

SO, who was the genius that changed these rules that were set some 30
years ago?

TO bad they did not adhere to them, considering the mad cow feed ban warning
letters still coming through in August of 2004... we are still feeding ruminants
to ruminants.

CONSIDERING that the feeding of animal protein started some 3-4 decades ago
(or longer), I only ponder when the TSE agent in the bovine and bovine/ovine/
derived CJD in humans, actually 1st occured;

The Disease of Animal Order 1973 (Waste Food)

March 1, 1974

The Raw Fat & Bone Processors Ass. Ltd

I should at the same time remind you that as we discussed with you some
time ago we do intend, at a later date, to bring an Order aimed at reducing
animal health risks associated with animal protein processing...


LIVESTOCK producers, hit hard over the past year by the
rising price of feeding-stuffs, now have a wider choice of alternatives.
AMOUNG these is DRIED ANIMAL MANURE sold seperately
in compound feeds.


manure drying plants?

still disgusted in sunny Bacliff, TEXAS USA

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

######### ##########

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