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From: TSS (
Subject: IBTS introduces additional restrictions to reduce vCJD risk
Date: November 1, 2004 at 5:24 am PST

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: IBTS introduces additional restrictions to reduce vCJD risk
Date: Mon, 1 Nov 2004 07:31:51 -0600
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Sun, 31 Oct 2004

IBTS introduces additional restrictions to reduce vCJD risk

IBTS introduces additional restrictions to reduce vCJD risk

The Irish Blood Transfusion Service today (Sunday) announced additional
restrictions on blood donation to reduce further the risk of vCJD being
transmitted by blood transfusion. The IBTS continues to monitor the
situation and has decided that from tomorrow (Monday 1st November 2004)
the IBTS will no longer accept blood donations from the following:

People who have spent one year or more in total in the UK between 1
January 1980 and 31 December 1996

People who have had certain operations in the UK on or after 1 January
1980. This includes neurosurgery, eye surgery, appendectomy,
tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, splenectomy and lymph node biopsy.

Since the possibility of transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion first
emerged, the IBTS have taken a number of precautionary steps including:

From November 1999 the removal of most of the white cells from blood
(white cells and plasma are considered by experts to be potential
sources of infection).

From April 2001, people who had spent 5 years or more in the UK between
1980 and 1996 were excluded from donating blood.

The exclusion of people who had previously received blood transfusions
outside Ireland.

The importation of plasma products from BSE free areas to further
decrease the risk of transmission.

The issuing of guidance to all doctors in January 2001, setting out best
practice for blood usage in surgical patients.

From May 2004, people who had spent 3 years or more in the UK between
1980 and 1996 were excluded from donating as were people who had
received blood transfusions in the Republic of Ireland (other than
autologous transfusions) on or after 1 January 1980.

Dr William Murphy, National Medical Director said: " we are introducing
this additional restriction to further reduce the threat of transmission
of vCJD through blood transfusion. This new restriction means that fewer
people will be able to give blood and will result in the loss of about
4,000 donors. However, we will still need to collect 3,000 donations per
week to ensure that we can supply hospitals with the blood necessary for
patient care. So we need to find 4,000 new donors and we need existing
donors to give blood regularly."

He urged anyone who had not donated before or who had not donated
recently to become a blood donor, if they fulfil the acceptance
criteria. "Without a commitment to blood donation from the community,
modern healthcare just can’t happen. It is not up to someone else to do
it, it is up to you, and to everyone who can."

Chief Executive Andrew Kelly said: "we realise by introducing these
measures we will lose some of our most loyal donors. We would like to
thank them for the difference they have made to so many lives. We would
ask that they encourage others to take their place and become committed
regular donors."


Note for Editors
· The Irish Blood Transfusion Service is responsible for collecting,
processing, testing and issuing blood in Ireland.
· The IBTS needs to collect about 160,000 donations of blood every year,
that is about 3,000 donations a week
· Giving blood saves lives, yet only 5% of the eligible population give
· One in four people will need a transfusion at sometime in their lives
· Between 1-2% of the population need a blood transfusion every year


> People who have had certain operations in the UK on or after 1 January
> 1980. This includes neurosurgery, eye surgery, appendectomy,
> tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, splenectomy and lymph node biopsy.

OTHER disturbing factors via surgery and SPORADIC CJD;

1: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Jun;57(6):757-8

Transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease to a chimpanzee by
electrodes contaminated during neurosurgery.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Asher DM, Kobrine A, Amyx HL, Sulima MP, Gajdusek DC.

Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institute of
Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, MD 20892.

Stereotactic multicontact electrodes used to probe the cerebral
cortex of a middle aged woman with progressive dementia were
previously implicated in the accidental transmission of
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) to two younger patients. The
diagnoses of CJD have been confirmed for all three cases. More than
two years after their last use in humans, after three cleanings and
repeated sterilisation in ethanol and formaldehyde vapour, the
electrodes were implanted in the cortex of a chimpanzee. Eighteen
months later the animal became ill with CJD. This finding serves to
re-emphasise the potential danger posed by reuse of instruments
contaminated with the agents of spongiform encephalopathies, even
after scrupulous attempts to clean them.

PMID: 8006664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Prions in skeletal muscle

Patrick J. Bosque*,dagger ,Dagger , Chongsuk Ryou*, Glenn Telling*,§,
David Peretz*,dagger , Giuseppe Legname*,dagger , Stephen J.
DeArmond*,dagger ,¶, and Stanley B. Prusiner*,dagger ,||,**

* Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Departments of dagger
Neurology, ¶ Pathology, and || Biochemistry and Biophysics, University
of California, San Francisco, CA 94143

Contributed by Stanley B. Prusiner, December 28, 2001

Considerable evidence argues that consumption of beef products from
cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions
causes new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In an effort to prevent
new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, certain "specified offals,"
including neural and lymphatic tissues, thought to contain high titers
of prions have been excluded from foods destined for human consumption
[Phillips, N. A., Bridgeman, J. & Ferguson-Smith, M. (2000) in The BSE
Inquiry (Stationery Office, London), Vol. 6, pp. 413-451]. Here we
report that mouse skeletal muscle can propagate prions and accumulate
substantial titers of these pathogens. We found both high prion titers
and the disease-causing isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the
skeletal muscle of wild-type mice inoculated with either the Me7 or
Rocky Mountain Laboratory strain of murine prions. Particular muscles
accumulated distinct levels of PrPSc, with the highest levels observed
in muscle from the hind limb. To determine whether prions are produced
or merely accumulate intramuscularly, we established transgenic mice
expressing either mouse or Syrian hamster PrP exclusively in muscle.
Inoculating these mice intramuscularly with prions resulted in the
formation of high titers of nascent prions in muscle. In contrast,
inoculating mice in which PrP expression was targeted to hepatocytes
resulted in low prion titers. Our data demonstrate that factors in
addition to the amount of PrP expressed determine the tropism of prions
for certain tissues. That some muscles are intrinsically capable of
accumulating substantial titers of prions is of particular concern.
Because significant dietary exposure to prions might occur through the
consumption of meat, even if it is largely free of neural and lymphatic
tissue, a comprehensive effort to map the distribution of prions in the
muscle of infected livestock is needed. Furthermore, muscle may provide
a readily biopsied tissue from which to diagnose prion disease in
asymptomatic animals and even humans. Dagger Present address: Department
of Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO 80204.

§ Present address: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University
of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0230.

** To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail:

Extraneural Pathologic Prion Protein in Sporadic Creutzfeldtâ¬Jakob

Markus Glatzel, M.D., Eugenio Abela, Manuela Maissen, M.S., and Adriano
Aguzzi, M.D., Ph.D.


Conclusions Using sensitive techniques, we identified extraneural
of PrPSc in spleen and muscle samples from approximately one third of
who died with sporadic Creutzfeldtâ¬Jakob disease. Extraneural PrPSc
to correlate with a long duration of disease.

EMBO reports AOP Published online: 11 April 2003

Widespread PrPSc accumulation in muscles of hamsters orally infected
with scrapie

Achim Thomzig, Christine Kratzel, Gudrun Lenz, Dominique KrĂĽger & Michael
Beekes Robert Koch-Institut, P26, Nordufer 20, D-13353 Berlin, Germany

Received 13 February 2003; Accepted 13 March 2003; Published online 11
April 2003.

Abstract :

Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and chronic wasting disease
are orally communicable, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
(TSEs). As zoonotic transmissions of TSE agents may pose a risk to human
health, the identification of reservoirs for infectivity in animal
tissues and their exclusion from human consumption has become a matter
of great importance for consumer protection. In this study, a variety of
muscles from hamsters that were orally challenged with scrapie was
screened for the presence of a molecular marker for TSE infection, PrPSc
(the pathological isoform of the prion protein PrP). Sensitive western
blotting revealed consistent PrPSc accumulation in skeletal muscles from
forelimb and hindlimb, head, back and shoulder, and in tongue.
Previously, our animal model has provided substantial baseline
information about the peripheral routing of infection in naturally
occurring and orally acquired ruminant TSEs. Therefore, the findings
described here highlight further the necessity to investigate thoroughly
whether muscles of TSE-infected sheep, cattle, elk and deer contain
infectious agents.

ALL human TSEs must be made reportable Nationally and Internationally
with mandatory
TSE questionnaire asking questions pertaining to route and source of TSE


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