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From: TSS (
Date: October 6, 2004 at 10:30 am PST

-------- Original Message --------
Date: Wed, 6 Oct 2004 12:27:10 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

[PDF] ACGM Compendium of Guidance, Part 2a Annex III, Additional ...
Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML

... of the agents associated with BSE and other ... example, may make
transmission to neural tissues more ... Work involving non-pathogenic
host micro-organisms containing ...


26 (4 of 14)

Implications for health issues


IN field cases of BSE, infectivity in 'peripheral' (i.e. non-CNS)
tissues is lower than in scrapie to the extent of being undetectable
in mouse bioassay (129). In cattle experimentally infected by the oral
route, infectivity in the lymphoid tissues of BSE-infected cattle has been
_impossible_ to determine due to lack of a sufficiently sensitive
infectivity test. Responses may arise from ongoing cattle-to-cattle
inoculation experiments as well as from novel, more sensitive
biochemical tests (114). However, the fact that with BSE, the CNS-
peripheral tissue differential is higher than that found in sheep scrapie
is important for decision takers who apply the worst-case scenerio...


Greetings list members,

I am most anxious to see what studies in this day and age
(much more sensitive) and with the new phenotypes of TSE
showing up in the bovine (not that BSE will not show up in
the non-neural tissue once looked at again with better testing),
they really have no idea.


''not least whether it is transmissible to primates(133)''

(please note CWD has transmitted to primate, cattle and sheep by

everytime there is a study that shows something
they do not want (as in the case with sporadic CJD and blood Transmission
of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease from Blood and Urine Into Mice The Lancet,
November 9, 1985 JUN TATEISHI et al;

they just claim that the testing protocol had been tainted or some stuff
that. AS the case of the studies of scrapie and muscle tissue long ago
by Pattison et al;



JANUARY 1990, p.68


1 Dr Pattison, a retired but eminent worker on scrapie for many years in
the AFRC, has pointed out that in one of his experimental studies of
scrapie in goats he found scrapie agent in the biceps femoris (rump)
muscle of one animal with clinical disease but not in 2 others with
clinical disease and in none with pre-clinical disease. MAFF have based
their policy on BSE in regard to meat (beef) on the results of studies
of natural scrapie (ie disease occurring under farm conditions) in both
sheep and goats by Hadlow 1979, 80, 81.

Other Infectivity Studies

2. These studies on 52 animals by equally eminent scrapie workers
(Hadlow et al) revealed no evidence whatever of infectivity in skeletal
muscle from these natural cases either in the pre-clinical or even
clinical stages of disease.

It is clear that the pathogenesis of experimental (Pattison) and natural
(Hadlow) scrapie may be different and it was therefore considered wise
to base present policy on knowledge of the natural disease.

3. Pattison exposed his 14 goats to intracerebral inoculation of thrice
passaged scrapie virus (in goats). This may have resulted in strain
selection and/or mutation of the natural agent. In contrast Hadlow's
study involved natural strains (probably multiple) in a flock with a
high incidence of disease in which exposure would almost certainly have
been by the mouth.

4. The fact that Hadlow identified no infectivity in muscle by mouse
inoculation (whereas some other tissues not normally consumed had
detectable infectivifcy) shows that cross contamination of his tissues
did not occur. Pattison's experiments were reported about 20 years
earlier when much less was known about Scrapie. In the intervening
period the knowledge available to Hadlow on the insensitivity of scrapie
agent to heat became available. There is therefore at least the
possibility that Pattison's instruments were not sterilised effectively,
thus possibly giving the false positive result for muscle.

5. Pattison used a more sensitive model for the detection of
infectivifcy, namely goats, whereas Hadlow used mice ie necessitating
crossing the species barrier and possibly reducing the test sensitivity.



6. In regard to the choice of species for agent assay, mice (Hadlow),
these would be guaranteed free of pre-existing Scrapie infection.
Pattison could offer no such guarantee that this was the case in the
animal to which muscle was passaged and disease could have developed
from exposure from a source other than muscle.

7. Pattison did not report that his recipient animals, including the one
inoculated with muscle, were examined by histopathology to confirm the
presence of disease. This is a significant deficit. Clinical diagnosis
alone is not acceptable as adequate evidence for the existence of scrapie.

8. Even in Pattison's studies only in 1 out of 14 goats was infectivity
detected in muscle and that was in a CLINICAL case. In BSE all clinical
cases are notified and do not enter any food chain.

9. The last paragraph of Pattison's letter is illogical. Furthermore,
this is no evidence whatsoever that scrapie or BSE is a danger to man.

W A WATSON 19 January 1990

Private Offices Mr K C Meldrum Mrs E Attridge Mr R Lowson Ms L Austin Mr
R Bradley


COURSE this was blown smooth out of the water with more
sensitve testing recently;

EMBO reports AOP Published online: 11 April 2003 Widespread PrPSc
accumulation in muscles of hamsters orally infected with scrapie Achim
Thomzig, Christine Kratzel, Gudrun Lenz, Dominique KrĂĽger & Michael
Beekes Robert Koch-Institut, P26, Nordufer 20, D-13353 Berlin, Germany

Received 13 February 2003; Accepted 13 March 2003; Published online 11
April 2003.

Abstract :

Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and chronic wasting disease
are orally communicable, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
(TSEs). As zoonotic transmissions of TSE agents may pose a risk to human
health, the identification of reservoirs for infectivity in animal
tissues and their exclusion from human consumption has become a matter
of great importance for consumer protection. In this study, a variety of
muscles from hamsters that were orally challenged with scrapie was
screened for the presence of a molecular marker for TSE infection, PrPSc
(the pathological isoform of the prion protein PrP). Sensitive western
blotting revealed consistent PrPSc accumulation in skeletal muscles from
forelimb and hindlimb, head, back and shoulder, and in tongue.
Previously, our animal model has provided substantial baseline
information about the peripheral routing of infection in naturally
occurring and orally acquired ruminant TSEs. Therefore, the findings
described here highlight further the necessity to investigate thoroughly
whether muscles of TSE-infected sheep, cattle, elk and deer contain
infectious agents.

Prions in skeletal muscle

Patrick J. Bosque*,dagger ,Dagger , Chongsuk Ryou*, Glenn Telling*,§,
David Peretz*,dagger , Giuseppe Legname*,dagger , Stephen J.
DeArmond*,dagger ,¶, and Stanley B. Prusiner*,dagger ,||,**

* Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Departments of dagger
Neurology, ¶ Pathology, and || Biochemistry and Biophysics, University
of California, San Francisco, CA 94143

Contributed by Stanley B. Prusiner, December 28, 2001

Considerable evidence argues that consumption of beef products from
cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions
causes new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In an effort to prevent
new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, certain "specified offals,"
including neural and lymphatic tissues, thought to contain high titers
of prions have been excluded from foods destined for human consumption
[Phillips, N. A., Bridgeman, J. & Ferguson-Smith, M. (2000) in The BSE
Inquiry (Stationery Office, London), Vol. 6, pp. 413-451]. Here we
report that mouse skeletal muscle can propagate prions and accumulate
substantial titers of these pathogens. We found both high prion titers
and the disease-causing isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the
skeletal muscle of wild-type mice inoculated with either the Me7 or
Rocky Mountain Laboratory strain of murine prions. Particular muscles
accumulated distinct levels of PrPSc, with the highest levels observed
in muscle from the hind limb. To determine whether prions are produced
or merely accumulate intramuscularly, we established transgenic mice
expressing either mouse or Syrian hamster PrP exclusively in muscle.
Inoculating these mice intramuscularly with prions resulted in the
formation of high titers of nascent prions in muscle. In contrast,
inoculating mice in which PrP expression was targeted to hepatocytes
resulted in low prion titers. Our data demonstrate that factors in
addition to the amount of PrP expressed determine the tropism of prions
for certain tissues. That some muscles are intrinsically capable of
accumulating substantial titers of prions is of particular concern.
Because significant dietary exposure to prions might occur through the
consumption of meat, even if it is largely free of neural and lymphatic
tissue, a comprehensive effort to map the distribution of prions in the
muscle of infected livestock is needed. Furthermore, muscle may provide
a readily biopsied tissue from which to diagnose prion disease in
asymptomatic animals and even humans. Dagger Present address: Department
of Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO 80204.

§ Present address: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University
of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0230.

** To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail:


NOW, the most frightening findings of late are these findings that;

Extraneural Pathologic Prion Protein in Sporadic Creutzfeldt ¬Jakob Disease

Markus Glatzel, M.D., Eugenio Abela, Manuela Maissen, M.S., and Adriano
Aguzzi, M.D., Ph.D.


Conclusions Using sensitive techniques, we identified extraneural
of PrPSc in spleen and muscle samples from approximately one third of
who died with sporadic Creutzfeldt ¬Jakob disease. Extraneural PrPSc
to correlate with a long duration of disease.

THESE findings above by Aguzzi et al have major implications on the
medical and
surgical arena...

kind regards,

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