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From: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. (216-119-139-210.ipset19.wt.net)
Subject: Re: Mexico Livestock and Products BSE Update (Ninth Edition) 2004 GAIN Report Number: MX4106
Date: September 25, 2004 at 4:35 pm PST

In Reply to: Mexico Livestock and Products BSE Update (Ninth Edition) 2004 GAIN Report Number: MX4106 posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on September 25, 2004 at 4:32 pm:


-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Re: Mexico Livestock and Products BSE Update (Ninth Edition) 2004
Date: Sat, 25 Sep 2004 14:04:13 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
To: BSE-L@UNI-KARLSRUHE.DE
References: <4155B3CC.6000603@wt.net>


##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #####################

Date: 12/01/2004
GAIN Report Number: MX4006
MX4006
Mexico
Livestock and Products
BSE Update
2004

snip...

Pet Food
In the days immediately following the ban, Mexican officials expressed
some concern that
customs agents were changing pet food labels at the border to indicate
that products were
derived from non-bovine meats. In response, an informal policy of
testing all pet foods to
determine the species was implemented. Shipments were to be detained
until test results
were final (24-36 hours). Officials now indicate that as long as pet
food arrives with its
original plant labels and the proper certification indicating that the
pet food is made from
something other than banned bovine materials, shipments will not be
detained for species
testing.

snip...

http://www.fas.usda.gov/

Date: 03/11/2004
GAIN Report Number: MX4036
MX4036
Mexico
Livestock and Products
Mexico BSE Update (Third Edition)
2004

snip...

GAIN Report - MX4036 Page 4 of 5
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Requirements for Pet Food Finally Established
There has been considerable confusion surrounding the requirements for
importing pet food
since the BSE ban was implemented. Most recently, the GOM halted the
issuance of pet food
import permits while it verified the certification of certain rendering
plants in the United
States to ensure that they did not process ruminant proteins. The GOM
now indicates that it
has a list of approved rendering plants from which animal origin meals
can be sourced for pet
foods and has issued a revised set of import requirements. The following
requirements are
provisional and will be in effect until May 4, 2004, at which time
SAGARPA may opt to modify
these requirements.
COURTESY TRANSLATION
SPECIES ANY
FUNCTION/PRODUCT BALANCED FEED
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
COUNTRY OF SHIPMENT UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
COMBINATION 1-1-196-USA-USA LEGEND CODE 001-87
REQUIREMENTS
Present original Health Certificate from the official authority of the
country of origin that
indicates:
1) That the raw material used to elaborate the product comes from the
country of origin
indicated in the certificate.
2) That the product does not contain RUMINANT PROTEINS OR ANY OTHER
COMPONENT
OF RUMINANT ORIGIN (e.g., milk or protein from milk). The balanced feeds
for non-ruminant
species are exempt of this requirement.
3) That the meal with which the balanced feed was elaborated comes from
a plant
approved by SAGARPA (NOM 060-ZOO-1999)
4) That the establishment in which the balanced feed is elaborated has
records of each
of the lots acquired of raw material and sales records of the balanced
feed (NOM 060-Z00-
1999)
Other requirements to be fulfilled:
5) Present original and copy of the quality control certificate from the
manufacturer. The
personnel from the Office of Animal Health Inspection will only keep the
copy once product is
verified.
6) Must show copy of the document that records the product (registration
card) issued
by the General Direction of Animal Health and in the case the
registration card was issued
more than 1 year ago, present the quality rating of the product issued
by an official medical
veterinarian approved as a verification unit or by an authorized medical
veterinarian in the
area of industrial establishments (Area 08), commercial (Area 09), with
a validity of 12
months beginning from the date it was issued. Registration of the
product must be in
accordance with the Agreement of Improved Rules, published in the Diario
Oficial (Mexico’s
Federal Register) on July 23, 1999; and with the Federal Law of Animal
Health published on
June 12, 2000.
GAIN Report - MX4036 Page 5 of 5
7) The concentrated and balanced food formulated with ingredients of
plant origin, fish
meal and or those that have vitamins and minerals added, are exempt from the
requirements relative to the registration and quality rating issued by a
medical veterinarian
approved as an verification unit or by an authorized medical
veterinarian in the area of
industrial establishments.
8) The personnel from the Office of Animal Health Inspection will verify
that the
registration card and/or manufacturer’s label of the product show the
composition. If the
product is presented with a label and contains ruminant protein, it
should contain a
statement that indicates that it is prohibited for feeding it to
ruminants. The product for
feeding ruminants presented with a label should indicate the origin and
animal species from
which the product was processed.
9) The shipment and the documentation should comply with the regulations
established
in the Article 24 of the Federal Law of Animal Health.
10) If, during the physical or document inspection, ruminant protein is
detected in the
product or any other ingredient of ruminant origin, except milk and milk
proteins, THE
IMPORTATION WILL NOT BE AUTHORIZED.

http://www.fas.usda.gov/

Voluntary Report - public distribution
Date: 3/24/2004
GAIN Report Number: MX4040
MX0000
Mexico
Livestock and Products
Mexico BSE update (fourth edition)
2004
Approved by:
David Williams
U.S. Embassy Mexico City
Prepared by:
Gabriel Hernandez & David Williams
Report Highlights:
Once again, the Government of Mexico (GOM) has modified import
requirements for U.S. Pet
Food. The latest revision establishes a number of new provisions related
to Bovine
Spongifom Encephalopathy (BSE) controls that were not required in the
import requirements
reported in MX4036. Exporters must comply with the new requirements and
import permits
obtained under the previous provisions are no longer in effect as of
March 23, 2004.
Includes PSD Changes: No
Includes Trade Matrix: No
Unscheduled Report
Mexico [MX1]
[MX]
USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
GAIN Report
Global Agriculture Information Network
Template Version 2.09
GAIN Report – MX4040 Page 2 of 4
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Requirements for Pet Food Modified
The GOM has again modified its import requirements for U.S. pet food. On
March 23, 2004,
Mexico’s Secretariat of Agriculture (SAGARPA) through an internal
official memorandum,
announced the modification of pet food import permits (Hoja de
Requisitos Zoosanitarios,
HRZ.) SAGARPA also indicated by internal memorandum that all previous
HRZs (see
MX4036) are no longer effective.
SAGARPA increased the number of BSE free countries, from which, raw
materials can be
sourced for the preparation of animal feed by adding Argentina, Chile
and Uruguay to the
original list. Previously, only Australia and New Zealand were listed.
Additionally, SAGARPA
established a number of new requirements on U.S. producers of pet food
relating to BSE
controls. This HRZ must be used when importing all kind of animal feed,
whether for large
or small animals.
A courtesy translation of current HRZ is provided for reference. In the
event of any
discrepancies, the original Spanish version will serve as the
requirement listing of record.
ZOOSANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR IMPORTS
Specie: Any
Product: Animal Feed
Country of Origin: United States of America
Country of Shipment: United States of America
Combination: 1-196-USA-USA
LEGEND:
Present the original sanitary certificate issued by the authority in the
Country of Origin
indicating:
1. That the animal raw materials with which the product was prepared
were originated in
the country stipulated in the certificate of Origin or that it was
legally imported from
countries free of BSE. Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand and
Uruguay are
considered BSE free countries.
2. That the products do not contain ruminants protein or any other
ingredient of
ruminant origin, except milk and milk proteins, gelatin and collagen
(prepared
exclusively from skin and leather), un-protein tallow (with a maximum of
0.15% non
soluble impurities) or that it contains proteins from ruminants of
countries free of
BSE.
3. That the flour of animal origin with which the animal feed was
elaborated comes from
an rendering plant approved by the SAGARPA (NOM-060-ZOO-1999) or, if
meat from
ruminant originated in the United States or Canada is used for the
elaboration of
balanced food, it would be allowed only under the following requirements:
a) That the animals from which the product was obtained were slaughtered in
authorized installations by the qualified authority, certifying that
only animals
under 30 months of age are slaughtered in such facilities or that the plant
GAIN Report – MX4040 Page 3 of 4
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
counts with acceptable “complete segregation” procedures that allows the
identification and selection of products to be exported.
b) That the product was obtained from animal under 30 months of age
determined by records that show the age of the animal or through postmortem
inspection, verifying that the animals from whom the product was obtained,
have two incisive teeth or less.
c) That the animals, from whom the product was obtained, were not stunned by
means of intra cranial cavity gas injection or by cutting off the spinal
cord
(laceration through the introduction of a lacerating tool into the
cranial cavity.)
d) That the product to be exported does not contain meat trimmings, meat
from
advanced meat recovery, mechanically separated meat and ground meat.
4. That the plant where the balanced food is elaborated has: records of
each of the lots
of acquired raw material of animal origin and records of sales of animal
feed stuff
(NOM-060-ZOO-1999).
OTHER REQUIREMENTS TO FULFILL
5. Present original and copy of the certificate of quality control from
the producer
company. The personnel from the Office of Inspection of Animal and Plant
Health will
keep a copy for its records.
6. When in the formulation of the product un-protein tallow from
ruminant origin is
included, the importer should present for each lot a certificate of
quality control given
by an independent laboratory, which indicates that the included tallow
in the product
contains a maximum of 0.15% insoluble impurities.
7. Copy of the document that legally covers the registration of the
product (TARJETON,
card) issued by the Office of Inspection of Animal and Plant Health, and
in case that
the card was issued one year behind, a quality judgment statement of the
product
issued by an authorized Veterinary approved as verification unit, or by
an authorized
Veterinary in the area of industrial establishments (area 08), merchant
or commercial
(area 09), which will be in force for 12 months beginning the expedition
date
(Agreement of Rules Improvement, published in the Official Diary of the
Federation on
July 23, 1999; Federal Law of Animal Health published on June 12, 2000),
should be
provided. Animal feed stuff imported for self consumption are exempt
from complying
with this requirement but must be subject to the fulfillment of the
other requirements
indicated in this sheet of zoo sanitary requirements (HRZ) and to the
presentation
before the inspection officer of Animal and Plant Health, of an official
letter issued by
the Imports & Exports Services and Cattle Certification Direction,
assigned to the
General Direction of Animal Health, SAGARPA, in which the maximum
amounts and
the authorized products must be indicated. Such document should be
cancelled and
retained in the Office of Animal Health Inspection located in the point
of enter.
8. The concentrated and animal feed products prepared with ingredients
of vegetal
origin, fish flour, added either with/without vitamins and or minerals,
are exempt of
complying with the requirements related to the registry and the
presentation of a
quality certificate issued by a Veterinary authorized as a verification
unit or by an
authorized Veterinary in the area of industrial establishments. Also,
are excluded from
the requirements indicated in points 1 to 4.
GAIN Report – MX4040 Page 4 of 4
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
9. The personnel from the office of Inspection of Animal Health will
verify that the card
and/or the label of the manufactured show the composition of the
product. When the
product is presented labeled and contains ruminant protein, it must
exhibit a legend
indicating that the use in ruminant nutrition is prohibited. The labeled
product
intended for use in ruminants nutrition, should indicate the animal
species from which
the product was elaborated.
10. The shipping and the documentation should comply with the
dispositions established
in Article 24 of the Animal Health Law.
11. In the case of animal feed for ruminant use, IMPORTATION IS NOT
AUTHORIZED, if
during the physical or document inspection it is detected that the
product to export
has ruminant protein or any other ingredient of ruminant origin, except
milk and milk
proteins, gelatin and collagen (prepared exclusively with skin and
leather), un-protein
tallow (with a maximum of 0.15% of insoluble impurities.)

http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200403/146105805.pdf

Voluntary Report - public distribution
Date: 04/21/2004
GAIN Report Number: MX4052
MX4036
Mexico
Livestock and Products
Mexico BSE Update (Fifth Edition)
2004
Approved by:
William L. Brant
U.S. Embassy Mexico City
Prepared by:
David Williams
Report Highlights:
Mexico has again modified its BSE ban to allow imports of beef
trimmings, lips, tongue,
kidneys, veal, diaphragm, heart, and liver. Import requirements for live
sheep for slaughter
have also been established.
Includes PSD Changes: No
Includes Trade Matrix: No
Unscheduled Report
Mexico [MX1]
[MX]
USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
GAIN Report
Global Agriculture Information Network
GAIN Report - MX4036 Page 2 of 3
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Mexico Expands List of Beef Products Eligible for Importation
On April 5, 2004, Mexico’s Secretariat of Agriculture (SAGARPA) informed
USDA that it would
allow imports of veal, tongue, heart, kidneys, lips, trimmings, and
diaphragm from cattle
under 30 months of age. SAGARPA also announced that imports of liver and
protein-free
tallow not apt for human consumption (note: this product was approved
previously) from
cattle of any age would be permitted. SAGARPA announced that it would
allow imports of
boneless beef from cattle under 30 months of age on March 3, 2004.
Sheep Ban Also Easing
In addition, SAGARPA has established import requirements for live sheep
and is expected to
establish requirements for sheep meat within a few days. It’s not yet
clear when SAGARPA
will authorize imports of sheep heads.
The BSE Banned List
The following products are currently banned by SAGARPA.
Live cattle
Bone-in meat
Boneless meat from cattle 30 months of age or older
Bovine offal and viscera other than those currently authorized
*Bovine meat preparations
Products derived from non-protein-free tallow
Protein-free tallow fit for human consumption
Gelatin and collagen prepared from bone
Ruminant meal
**Meat from small ruminants (added since the initial ban)
**Live sheep for breeding (added since the initial ban)
*While bovine meat preparations are currently banned. SAGARPA will
consider establishing
import requirements for processed beef preparations if the products do
not differ
substantially from the raw products that are currently authorized. For
example, a company
that produces a marinated or breaded boneless beef product can submit a
request to have a
set of import requirements established. Once established, the
requirements will be available
for any company to use. Companies should work with their importers and
be prepared to
provide documentation about their product composition and expect to wait
a few weeks for
approval.
**A lifting of this ban is expected soon.
Products Exempt from the BSE Ban
The following products are exempt from the BSE ban.
Boneless beef from cattle under 30 months of age
Veal de-boned or bone-in
Hearts, kidneys, tongue and lips from cattle under 30 months of age
Diaphragm and trimmings from cattle under 30 months of age
Liver
Milk
Dairy products
Semen
GAIN Report - MX4036 Page 3 of 3
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Embryos
Protein-free tallow not fit for human consumption
Dicalcium phosphate (DCP)
Skins and hides
Gelatin and collagen obtained from hides and skins
*Pet Food (see MX4040 for more details)
*The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has submitted a request
to SAGARPA to
modify some of the more onerous requirements for pet food.
Secretariat of Health Has Its Own Ban
A listing of the Secretariat of Health’s banned products of bovine
origin follows:
Hormones
Insulin
Enzymes for digestive therapy
Gel capsules made from cartilage or bone
Sutures
Laboratory growth media
Bile extracts
Gelatin (conflict with SAGARPA)
Any products regulated by the Secretariat of Health made from Specified
Risk Materials
Food supplements
Blood serum
Common ingredients in beauty products
Dehydrated broth (subject to prior notice)
Instant soups (subject to prior notice)

http://www.fas.usda.gov/

Voluntary Report - public distribution
Date: 05/03/2004
GAIN Report Number: MX4056
MX4036
Mexico
Livestock and Products
Mexico BSE Update (Sixth Edition)
2004
Approved by:
William L. Brant
U.S. Embassy Mexico City
Prepared by:
David Williams
Report Highlights:
Mexico has again modified its BSE ban to allow imports of tripe from
cattle less than 30
months of age. Additionally, the GOM has agreed to certain certification
procedures for
rendering plants that supply the pet food industry.
Includes PSD Changes: No
Includes Trade Matrix: No
Unscheduled Report
Mexico [MX1]
[MX]
USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
GAIN Report
Global Agriculture Information Network
GAIN Report - MX4036 Page 2 of 3
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Mexico Expands List of Beef Products Eligible for Importation
On April 5, 2004, Mexico’s Secretariat of Agriculture (SAGARPA) informed
USDA that it would
allow imports of veal, tongue, heart, kidneys, lips, trimmings, and
diaphragm from cattle less
than 30 months of age. SAGARPA also announced that imports of liver and
protein-free
tallow not apt for human consumption (note: this product was approved
previously) from
cattle of any age would be permitted. SAGARPA announced that it would
allow imports of
boneless beef from cattle less than 30 months of age on March 3, 2004.
Sheep Ban Also Easing
In addition, SAGARPA has established import requirements for live sheep
and is expected to
establish requirements for sheep meat within a few days. It’s not yet
clear when SAGARPA
will authorize imports of sheep heads.
The BSE Banned List
The following products are currently banned by SAGARPA.
Live cattle
Bone-in meat
Boneless meat from cattle 30 months of age or older
Bovine offal and viscera other than those currently authorized
*Bovine meat preparations
Products derived from non-protein-free tallow
Protein-free tallow fit for human consumption
Gelatin and collagen prepared from bone
Ruminant meal
**Meat from small ruminants (added since the initial ban)
**Live sheep for breeding (added since the initial ban)
*While bovine meat preparations are currently banned. SAGARPA will
consider establishing
import requirements for processed beef preparations if the products do
not differ
substantially from the raw products that are currently authorized. For
example, a company
that produces a marinated or breaded boneless beef product can submit a
request to have a
set of import requirements established. Once established, the
requirements will be available
for any company to use. Companies should work with their importers and
be prepared to
provide documentation about their product composition and expect to wait
a few weeks for
approval.
**A lifting of this ban is expected soon.
Products Exempt from the BSE Ban
The following products are exempt from the BSE ban.
Boneless beef from cattle under 30 months of age
Veal de-boned or bone-in
Hearts, kidneys, tongue and lips from cattle under 30 months of age
Diaphragm and trimmings from cattle under 30 months of age
Tripe from cattle under 30 months of age
Liver
Milk
Dairy products
GAIN Report - MX4036 Page 3 of 3
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Semen
Embryos
Protein-free tallow not fit for animal consumption
Dicalcium phosphate (DCP)
Skins and hides
Gelatin and collagen obtained from hides and skins
*Pet Food (see MX4040 for more details)
*The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and SAGARPA
recently agreed on
simpler procedures for notifying SAGARPA concerning APHIS certifications
of U.S. rendering
plants supplying pet food manufacturers. The agreement will eliminate
the need for
SAGARPA to directly inspect plants and meets a May 4 deadline for
resolving these issues.
Secretariat of Health Has Its Own Ban
A listing of the Secretariat of Health’s banned products of bovine
origin follows:
Hormones
Insulin
Enzymes for digestive therapy
Gel capsules made from cartilage or bone
Sutures
Laboratory growth media
Bile extracts
Gelatin (conflict with SAGARPA)
Any products regulated by the Secretariat of Health made from Specified
Risk Materials
Food supplements
Blood serum
Common ingredients in beauty products
Dehydrated broth (subject to prior notice)
Instant soups (subject to prior notice)

http://www.fas.usda.gov/

Voluntary Report - public distribution
Date: 05/26/2004
GAIN Report Number: MX4067
MX4067
Mexico
Livestock and Products
Mexico BSE Update (Seventh Edition)
2004
Approved by:
David Williams
U.S. Embassy Mexico City
Prepared by:
David Williams
Report Highlights:
Mexico has again modified its BSE ban, this time to allow imports of
sheep meat and sheep heads from
animals under 12 months. In addition, import requirements for boneless
marinated beef from cattle less
than 30 months of age have been established.
Includes PSD Changes: No
Includes Trade Matrix: No
Unscheduled Report
Mexico [MX1]
[MX]
USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
GAIN Report
Global Agriculture Information Network
GAIN Report - MX4067 Page 2 of 3
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Mexico Expands List of Beef Products Eligible for Importation
The Government of Mexico (GOM) recently established import requirements
for meat and
heads from sheep less than 12 months of age. At this point, the only
restrictions on sheep
are for sheep for breeding. Sheep for slaughter have been approved for
some time. In
addition, in response to inquiries from U.S. companies, the GOM has
established import
requirements for boneless marinated beef from cattle less than 30 months
of age.
The BSE Banned List
The following products are currently banned by SAGARPA.
Live cattle
Bone-in meat
Boneless meat from cattle 30 months of age or older
Bovine offal and viscera other than those currently authorized
*Bovine meat preparations
Products derived from non-protein-free tallow
Protein-free tallow fit for human consumption
Gelatin and collagen prepared from bone
Ruminant meal
**Live sheep for breeding (added since the initial ban)
*While bovine meat preparations are currently banned. SAGARPA will
consider establishing
import requirements for processed beef preparations if the products do
not differ
substantially from the raw products that are currently authorized. For
example, a company
that produces a marinated or breaded boneless beef product can submit a
request to have a
set of import requirements established. Once established, the
requirements will be available
for any company to use. Companies should work with their importers and
be prepared to
provide documentation about their product composition and expect to wait
a few weeks for
approval.
**A lifting of this ban is expected soon.
Products Exempt from the BSE Ban
The following products are exempt from the BSE ban.
Boneless beef from cattle under 30 months of age
Marinated boneless beef from cattle under 30 months of age
Veal de-boned or bone-in
Hearts, kidneys, tongue and lips from cattle under 30 months of age
Diaphragm and trimmings from cattle under 30 months of age
Tripe from cattle under 30 months of age
Boneless meat, carcasses, viscera, and heads from sheep under 12 months
of age
Boneless meat, carcasses, and viscera from goats under 12 months of age
Liver
Milk
Dairy products
Semen
Embryos
Protein-free tallow not fit for animal consumption
Dicalcium phosphate (DCP)
Skins and hides
GAIN Report - MX4067 Page 3 of 3
UNCLASSIFIED USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
Gelatin and collagen obtained from hides and skins
*Pet Food (see MX4040 for more details)
*The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and SAGARPA
recently agreed on
simpler procedures for notifying SAGARPA concerning APHIS certifications
of U.S. rendering
plants supplying pet food manufacturers. The agreement will eliminate
the need for
SAGARPA to directly inspect plants and meets a May 4 deadline for
resolving these issues.
Secretariat of Health Has Its Own Ban
A listing of the Secretariat of Health’s banned products of bovine
origin follows:
Hormones
Insulin
Enzymes for digestive therapy
Gel capsules made from cartilage or bone
Sutures
Laboratory growth media
Bile extracts
Gelatin (conflict with SAGARPA)
Any products regulated by the Secretariat of Health made from Specified
Risk Materials
Food supplements
Blood serum
Common ingredients in beauty products
Dehydrated broth (subject to prior notice)
Instant soups (subject to prior notice)

http://www.fas.usda.gov/

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: INOCULATION OF TME INTO THE TONGUE IS 100,000-FOLD MORE
EFFICIENT THAN ORAL TME & CWD DATA
Date: Sat, 26 Jul 2003 14:11:27 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE-L

snip...

ACCESSION NO: 0180541 SUBFILE: CRIS
PROJ NO: NEBR-9802070 AGENCY: CSREES NEBR
PROJ TYPE: NRI COMPETITIVE GRANT PROJ STATUS: TERMINATED
CONTRACT/GRANT/AGREEMENT NO: 98-35204-6409
START: 01 DEC 1998 TERM: 30 NOV 2002 FY: 2001 GRANT YR: 1998
GRANT AMT: $250,000

INVESTIGATOR: Bessen, R. A.

PERFORMING INSTITUTION:
MICROBIOLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY
CREIGHTON UNIV
2500 CALIFORNIA PLAZA
OMAHA, NEBRASKA 68178

MECHANISMS OF STRAIN DIVERSITY IN TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCH-ALO

OBJECTIVES: 9802070. The specific aims of the research are 1) to
investigate the biosynthesis of strain-specific PrP-res molecules using
two strains of the transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent; 2) to
examine the rate of PrP-res formation between TME strains in a cell-free
PrP conversion reaction; 3) To investigate the mechanisms of inhibition
of PrP-res formation between TME strains.

APPROACH: This study will use spleen organotypic slice cultures infected
with the HY and DY strains of TME to examine the rate of formation and
turnover of PrP-res from radiolabeled PrPc precursor. Several
biochemical parameters used to distinguish the Prp-res strains will be
analyzed and related to the in vivo biological and chemical properties
of the TME strains. The in situ PrP conversion reaction will be
performed on tissue slices from TME-infected spleens in order to measure
the rates of strain-specific PrP-res formation. Anti-TSE drugs that
prolong the length of the TSE incubation period will be tested for their
effects on both PrP-res biosynthesis in spleen organ cultures and
PrP-res conversion in the in situ PrP conversion reaction. The mechanism
of action of these drugs will be investigated as well as their
effectiveness between TME strains.

PROGRESS: 1998/12 TO 2002/11
1. The spread of the abnormal conformation of the prion protein,
PrP-res, within the spinal cord is central to the pathogenesis of
transmissible prion diseases, but the mechanism of transport has not
been determined. This study investigated the route of transport of the
HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), a prion disease of
mink, in the central nervous system following unilateral inoculation
into the sciatic nerve of Syrian hamsters. The patterns of PrP-res brain
deposition at various times post infection were consistent with TME
spread from the sciatic nerve to the lumbar spinal cord followed by
transsynaptic spread and retrograde transport to the brain and brainstem
along descending spinal tracts. 2. Food borne transmission of prions can
lead to infection of the gastrointestinal tract and neuroinvasion via
the splanchnic and vagus nerves. In this study we report that
inoculation of TME into the tongue is 100,000-fold more efficient than
oral TME ingestion in hamsters. The incubation period following TME
inoculation into the lingual muscles was the shortest among five
non-neuronal routes of inoculation. Deposition of PrP-res was first
detected in the tongue and submandibular lymph node at one to two weeks
following tongue inoculation of TME. PrP-res deposits in the tongue were
associated with individual axons and the initial appearance of TME in
the brainstem was found in the hypoglossal nucleus at two weeks
postinfection. These results demonstrate that TME can replicate in both
the tongue and regional lymph node but indicate that the faster route of
brain invasion was via retrograde axonal transport within the
hypoglossal nerve to the hypoglossal nucleus. Topical application of TME
to a superficial wound on the surface of the tongue resulted in a higher
incidence of disease and shorter incubation period compared to oral TME
ingestion. Therefore, abrasions to the tongue in livestock and humans
may predispose a host to oral prion infection of the tongue-associated
cranial nerves. 3. Interspecies transmission of prion diseases can
result in the adaptation and selection of prion strains with an expanded
host range and increased virulence such as in the case of BSE and
variant CJD. To investigate prion strain adaptation, we serially
passaged a biological clone of HY TME into hamsters and examined the
selection of distinct strain phenotypes and conformations of PrP-res.
The DY TME strain was the predominant strain based on PrP-res following
interspecies passage and additional intraspecies passages in hamsters
resulted in selection of the HY TME strain-specific PrP-res and a
shorter incubation period unless the passages were performed with a
low-dose inoculum, in which case the DY TME strain was dominant. The
strain-specific PrP-res preceded stabilization of the TME clinical
phenotype and incubation period. These findings demonstrate that
interspecies transmission of a single cloned TME strain resulted in the
adaptation and selection of at least two strain-specific PrP-res
conformations that underwent selection until one type of PrP-res
conformation and strain phenotype was predominant.

IMPACT: 1998/12 TO 2002/11
Prion diseases are important food borne diseases of domesticated
ruminants and wild cervids that are difficult to diagnose and eliminate
from a population. Although transmission is believed to occur through
oral ingestion of prions, our findings suggest that direct infection of
oral cavity-associated cranial nerves is an alternate route of prion
neuroinvasion. Defining the initial sites of prion infection following
oral exposure is necessary to prevent prion transmission. Additional
findings indicate that prions can spread into the tongue following
extraneural routes of prion infection. These findings indicate that 1)
food products containing tongue could be a source of prion infection for
animals and humans, and 2) prion detection in the tongue could prove
useful for premortem diagnosis of prion diseases.A,

PUBLICATIONS: 1998/12 TO 2002/11
1. Bartz, J.C., Kincaid, A.E. & Bessen, R.A. 2002. Transmissible mink
encephalopathy transport along descending motor tracts. Journal of
Virology 76:5759-5768.
2. Bartz, J.C., Kincaid, A.E. & Bessen, R.A. 2003. Rapid prion
neuroinvasion following tongue infection. Journal of Virology 77:583-591..

http://cristel.nal.usda.gov/cgi-bin/starfinder/16408/crisassist.txt

The EFSA Journal (2004) 41, 1-4,BSE risk from bovine tonsil and
consumption of
bovine tongue.


 
1 of 4
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards of the
European Food Safety Authority on BSE risk from bovine tonsil
and consumption of bovine tongue
(Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-095)
Adopted on 4 March 2004
SUMMARY OF OPINION
The European Commission requested the European Food Safety Authority
(EFSA) and its Scientific
Panel on Biological Hazards to consider an update of the Scientific
Steering Committee (SSC) opinion
(7-8 November 2002) on TSE infectivity distribution in ruminant tissues
as pertaining to BSE risk
from bovine tonsil and the consumption of bovine tongue in view of
results revealing possible rapid
prion neuroinvasion following tongue infection.
The re-assessment of tonsil infectivity, considering already established
precautionary measures, very
low oral tonsil infectivity titre and absence of new positive findings
in tonsil infectivity from the ongoing
cattle bioassay study, does not suggest the necessity of an update of
the SSC opinion on TSE
infectivity distribution in ruminant tissues. In the case of the
detection of PrPSc in tongue following
direct tongue or intra cerebral infection as recently observed in one
specific animal model, a
quantitative risk analysis appears currently not to be possible in view
of the total absence of data for
other strains and species. Research into this field is recommended.
Key words : BSE, tissue infectivity, tongue, tonsil, prion, ruminant, bovine
The EFSA Journal (2004) 41, 1-4,BSE risk from bovine tonsil and
consumption of
bovine tongue.


 
2 of 4
BACKGROUND
In its amended update on TSE infectivity distribution in ruminant
tissues, the Scientific Steering
Committee (SSC, 7-8 November 2002) concluded that there was at that time
no new data on tissue
infectivity to suggest that skeletal muscle, tongue or associated nerves
should be considered as
specified risk material (SRM) for cattle at any age. However, the risk
assessment carried out on behalf
of the German authorities showed that the SSC’s initial statement:
“Exclusion from Specified Risk
Material (SRM) of bovine tongue and cheek meat remains justified
providing contamination by CNS
(Central Nervous System tissue), introduced during slaughter, can be
avoided” may not necessarily be
appropriate. That conclusion was reached considering the long list of
critical points in the process of
slaughtering the animal, the removal, storage and transport of the head
and of the harvest of cheek
meat.
Thus, the SSC considered that:
1. The tonsil of a bovine animal of any age should be regarded as posing
a risk.
2. The tongue of animals certified safe for human consumption does not
pose a risk if
contamination with CNS and tonsil material is avoided for animals of any
age. This may
imply that the harvested section of the tongue is shortened [referred to
as “short tongue”] to
avoid by a cautious margin, removal with the tongue of that part of the
root of the tongue
containing lingual tonsil.
On 28 June 2003, Commission Regulation (EC) No 1139/2003 amending
Regulation (EC) No
999/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council was published 1
and applies from 1 October
2003. Point 1 of the amended Annex XI to Regulation (EC) No 999/20012
lays down that tonsils of
bovine animals of all ages are designated as specified risk material,
thus withdrawing the former age
limit of 12 months. Point 6 lays down special provisions when harvesting
the bovine tongue at the
slaughterhouse, i.e. “Tongues of bovine animals of all ages intended for
human or animal consumption
shall be harvested at the slaughterhouse by a transverse cut rostral to
the lingual process of the
basihyoid bone.”
On 10 July 2003, the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee (SEAC)
of the United
Kingdom (UK) issued a statement on the BSE risk from bovine tonsil and
the consumption of bovine
tongue. Its opinion was based on a report of the Veterinary Laboratories
Agency (VLA) on the
presence of tonsil tissue in bovine tongue and on an assessment carried
out by Det Norske Veritas
(DNV) consulting on BSE risk from bovine tonsils. SEAC concluded that
although the scientific
evidence did not conclusively prove that tonsil tissue in bovine tongue
could be infective, it was
prudent to assume this was the case. SEAC considered that in view of the
level of scientific
uncertainty in this area it was not possible to advise precisely on the
magnitude of that risk. However,
the committee agreed that any BSE risk from eating tongue was likely to
be very small.
TERMS OF REFERENCE
The EFSA and its Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards was asked for a
possible update of the SSC
opinion of 7-8 November 2002 on ruminant tissue infectivity distribution
considering:
1 OJ L 160, 28.6.2003, p. 22
2 OJ L 147, 31.5.2001, p. 1
The EFSA Journal (2004) 41, 1-4,BSE risk from bovine tonsil and
consumption of
bovine tongue.


 
3 of 4
1. Experimental data on rapid neuro-invasion of the tongue;
2. Amended measures concerning tonsil and tongue in Commission
regulation 999/2001;
3. The SEAC statement on bovine tongue infectivity based on the VLA
report on the presence of
tonsil tissue on/in bovine tongue and the DNV consulting assessment of
BSE risk from bovine
tonsils.
ASSESSMENT
Preamble
Although the former SSC opinion refers to TSE infectivity in ruminant
tissues, this assessment is
restricted to BSE infectivity in bovine tonsil and tongue.
Assessment
The previous SSC opinion (November 2002) and SEAC assessments (July
2003) were based on
infectivity in tonsil tissue and probability of tonsil tissue residues
on/in the tongue. Cattle were
experimentally infected with BSE, and pooled palatine tonsil tissue was
taken from animals culled 10
months post inoculation (m.p.i.). Samples of this tissue were inoculated
(intra-cerebrally) into five
calves. One animal from this group developed BSE at 45 m.p.i in
September 2002. These assays are
still ongoing and to date the other four animals in this group remain
healthy with no clinical evidence
of BSE at 62 m.p.i. Additional groups of five animals each that received
pooled palatine tonsil taken
from animals at different time points after inoculation with BSE (6, 18
and 26 m.p.i.) are also still
healthy at 55 to 59 m.p.i.
The bovine intra-cerebral infectivity dose of tonsil tissue was
estimated to be not higher than 100 to
101 ID50 (DNV report; Prof. Wells, personal communication). Considering
a decrease of effectiveness
of infection in the oral route by a factor of (at least) 10-5 this would
equal a bovine oral infectivity of
10-5 to 10-4 ID50. Thus a whole tonsil of 50 g would carry no more than
0.005 boID50. In the DNV
report, where a more tentative approach was used (resulting in a factor
of 2000-1 for the decrease of
infectivity from intra-cerebral to oral route), infectivity for one
whole bovine tonsil (50 g) was
calculated to be 0.25 boID50. Additional facts have to be taken into
account as sources of variation in
risk quantification, such as reduction of tonsil tissue due to meat
inspection, current regulations and
slaughtering practices, and in particular the fact that the one positive
finding relates to the palatine
tonsil and not lingual tonsil tissue.
Recently, Bartz et al., (2003) reported the detection of PrPSc in tongue
tissue following the intra
cerebral inoculation of six hamster adapted strains. This demonstrates
that prions can travel from the
CNS to tongue. They also reported, using a hamster adapted strains of
transmissible mink
encephalopathy (TME), that the transmission of TME by inoculation into
the tongue of hamsters is
100,000-fold more efficient than by the oral route and they showed that
prions can replicate in the
tongue. The scientific relevance to the pathogenesis of BSE in cattle of
this specific rodent model is
questionable. Currently there are no data available, in particular from
the cattle bioassay, to back up
this single study which is restricted to very specific animal models and
TSE strains.
The EFSA Journal (2004) 41, 1-4,BSE risk from bovine tonsil and
consumption of
bovine tongue.


 
4 of 4
CONCLUSIONS
The Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards concludes that:
1. Re-assessment of tonsil infectivity in view of already established
measures, very low oral
infectivity titre and absence of new positive findings in tonsil
infectivity from the
pathogenesis study does not suggest the necessity for an update of the
SSC opinion on tissue
infectivity distribution (7-8 November 2002).
2. In the case of the detection of PrPSc in tongues following tongue or
intra-cerebral infection as
recently observed in one specific animal model, a quantitative risk
analysis appears currently
not to be possible in view of the total absence of data for other
strains and species.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Research into tongue neuro-invasion and PrPSc presence/accumulation in
tongue tissue, in particular in
the bovine species, is strongly recommended in order to facilitate risk
quantification and assessment.
DOCUMENTATION PROVIDED TO EFSA
Letter, RE; D(2003)/KVD/khk/420863, from the European Commission –
Health & Consumer
Protection Directorate-General requesting a possible update of the SSC
opinion of 7-8 November 2002
on ‘TSE infectivity distribution in ruminant tissues’.
SCIENTIFIC PANEL MEMBERS
Herbert Budka, Sava Buncic, Pierre Colin, John D Collins, Christian
Ducrot, James Hope,
Mac Johnston, Günter Klein, Hilde Kruse, Ernst Lücker, Simone Magnino,
Riitta Liisa Maijala,
Antonio Martínez López, Christophe Nguyen-The, Birgit Noerrung, Servé
Notermans, George-
John E Nychas, Maurice Pensaert, Terence Roberts, Ivar Vågsholm,
Emmanuel Vanopdenbosch.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The Chairman and members of the working group are acknowledged for their
valuable contribution to
this mandate. The members of the working group are Herbert Budka, John
D. Collins, James Hope,
Ernst Lücker (Chairman), Christian Ducrot, Emmanuel Vanopdenbosch.
REFERENCES
 Bartz et al., (2003). Rapid prion neuroinvasion following tongue
infection. Journal of Virology
77.1, 583-591.
 Statement (10 July 2003) by Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory
Committee (SEAC) of the
United Kingdom on the BSE risk from bovine tonsil and the consumption of
ox tongue (including
reports from Veterinary laboratories agency (VLA) and Det Norske Veritas
(DNV)).
 SSC opinion of 7-8 November 2002 on TSE Infectivity distribution in
ruminant tissues.

http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/biohaz/biohaz_opinions/243/opinion_biohaz_06_en1.pdf

TSS

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. wrote:

> ##################### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
> #####################
>
> Voluntary Report - public distribution
> Date: 08/24/2004
> GAIN Report Number: MX4106
> MX4106
> Mexico
> Livestock and Products
> BSE Update (Ninth Edition)
> 2004

snip...end



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