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From: TSS (216-119-144-23.ipset24.wt.net)
Subject: Transmission of sheep scrapie to elk by intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment
Date: August 16, 2004 at 9:29 am PST

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Transmission of sheep scrapie to elk by intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment.
Date: Mon, 16 Aug 2004 11:31:46 -0500
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
CC: cjdvoice@yahoogroups.com

1: J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004 Jul;16(4):316-21.

Transmission of sheep scrapie to elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by
intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment.

Hamir AN, Miller JM, Cutlip RC, Kunkle RA, Jenny AL, Stack MJ,
Chaplin MJ, Richt JA.

National Animal Disease Center, ARS, USDA, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

This is a final report of an experimental transmission of sheep
scrapie agent by intracerebral inoculation to Rocky Mountain elk
(Cervus elaphus nelsoni). It documents results obtained in
experimental (n = 6) and control (n = 2) elk. During the first 2
years postinoculation (PI), 3 animals died or were euthanized
because of infection or injuries other than spongiform
encephalopathy (SE). In years 3 and 4 PI, 3 other inoculated elk
died after brief terminal neurological episodes. Necropsy of these
animals revealed moderate weight loss but no other gross lesions.
Microscopically, characteristic lesions of SE were seen throughout
the brain and spinal cord, and the tissue was positive for
proteinase K-resistant prion protein (PrPres) by
immunohistochemistry (IHC) and by Western blot. Scrapie-associated
fibrils (SAF) were observed by negative-stain electron microscopy in
the brain of elk with neurologic signs. PrPres and SAF were not
detected in the 3 inoculated elk necropsied during the first 2 years
or in the 2 control animals. Retrospective analysis of the
gene-encoding cervid PrP revealed a polymorphism at codon 132. The
elk with SE were either homozygous (MM) or heterozygous (LM). These
findings confirm that intracerebral inoculation of sheep scrapie
agent results in SE with accumulations of PrPres in the central
nervous system of elk. Based on morphologic and IHC findings, the
experimentally induced SE cannot be distinguished from chronic
wasting disease of elk with currently available diagnostic techniques.

------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15305743

Research Project: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy and Other
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies


Location:

National Animal Disease Center
Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Title: Transmission of Sheep Scrapie to Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsoni) by
Intracerebral Inoculation

Authors
item Hamir, Amirali

item Miller, Janice
item Cutlip, Randall

item Richt, Juergen

item Kunkle, Robert - bob

item O'Rourke, Katherine

item Jenny, Allen - USDA-APHIS-NVSL, AMES
item Stack, Mick - VLA, WEYBRIDGE, UK
item Chaplin, Melanie - VLA, WEYBRIDGE, UK

Submitted to: Diseases At The Interface Between Domestic Livestock And
Wildlife Species
Publication Acceptance Date: July 17, 2003
Publication Date: July 17, 2003
Abstract only
Technical Abstract: To determine the transmissibility of scrapie to
Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), 6 elk calves were
inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from sheep naturally
affected with scrapie. Two others were kept as uninoculated controls. A
preliminary report of this study was published previously. During the
first 2 years post inoculation (PI), 3 animals died or were euthanized
because of injuries or infection other than spongiform encephalopathy
(SE). In years 3 and 4 PI, 3 other elk died after brief terminal
neurological episodes. Necropsy of these animals revealed moderate
weight loss but no other gross lesions. Microscopically, characteristic
lesions of SE were seen throughout the brains and spinal cords and these
tissues were positive for PrPres by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and
Western blot. Also, scrapie-associated fibrils (SAF) were observed by
negative stain electron microscopy in the brains of elk with neurologic
signs. PrPres and SAF were not detected in inoculated elk necropsied
during the first 2 years or in the 2 control animals. Retrospective
sequencing of gene encoding PrP in affected elk revealed MM or LM at
codon 132. These findings confirm that intracerebral inoculation of
sheep scrapie agent results in SE with accumulations of PrPres in the
CNS of elk and that this condition cannot be distinguished from chronic
wasting disease (CWD) of elk with currently available diagnostic techniques.


http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=148764

Title: Experimental Cross-Species Transmission of Chronic Wasting
Disease (Cwd-Mule Deer) to Domestic Livestock at the National Animal
Disease Center: An Update

Authors
item Hamir, Amirali

item Cutlip, Randall

item Miller, Janice
item Richt, Juergen

item Kunkle, Robert - bob

item Williams, Elizabeth - UNIV WYOMING, LARAMIE
item Stack, Mick - VET LABS,WEYBRIDGE,UK
item Chaplin, Melanie - VET LABS,WEYBRIDGE,UK
item Miller, Michael - COLORADO DIV WILDLIFE
item O'Rourke, Katherine


http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=149095

Title: Experimental Inoculation of Tme, Scrapie, and Cwd to Raccoons
(Procyon Lotor) and the Unilization of Raccoons for Strain-Typing of
Unknown Tses in the United States

Authors
item Hamir, Amirali

item Miller, Janice
item Cutlip, Randall

item Stack, Mick - VET LABS,WEYBRIDGE,UK
item Chaplin, Melanie - VET LABS,WEYBRIDGE,UK
item Bartz, J - CREIGHTON UNIVERSITY
item Jenny, Allen - NVSL, APHIS, USDA
item Williams, Elizabeth - UNIV WYOMING, LARAMIE

http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publications.htm?seq_no_115=149097


Submitted to: American Association Of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians
Publication Acceptance Date: October 9, 2003
Publication Date: October 9, 2003
Abstract only
Technical Abstract: Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are omnivorous and their
diet may include carrion. It is therefore possible that in the wild they
may get exposed to carcasses of animals with transmissible spongiform
encephalopathies (TSEs). To determine the susceptibility of raccoons to
transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), scrapie, and chronic wasting
disease (CWD), each of these agents was inoculated intracerebrally into
a group of 4 kits. Three uninoculated kits served as controls. All
raccoons in the TME-inoculated group developed neurologic signs and were
euthanized within 6 months post inoculation (PI). In the
scrapie-inoculated group, 3 animals became sick and were euthanized
between 18 - 22 months PI. Although the fourth raccoon in this group did
not show any clinical signs, it was euthanized at 24 months PI. At
necropsy all clinically affected raccoons had extensive microscopic
lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and protease-resistant prion
protein (PrP**res) was detected in the CNS by immunohistochemistry and
Western blot. In the CWD-inoculated group, 1 raccoon was euthanized at
39 months PI because of severe cystitis. Its brain was negative for
PrP**res. At present, 4 years PI, the 3 remaining CWD-inoculated
raccoons are alive and apparently healthy. These preliminary findings
demonstrate that TME and scrapie can be transmitted to raccoons within 6
months and 2 years, respectively, whereas CWD cannot. Based on these
incubation periods, it may be possible to differentiate these 3 TSEs
should they occur in non-host species. Such a laboratory model would be
relatively simple and inexpensive for characterization of unknown TSEs
in the United States.


TSS





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