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From: TSS ()
Subject: Mexico Gets Favorable BSE Risk Status Recommendation ???
Date: March 18, 2008 at 11:50 am PST

Mexico Gets Favorable BSE Risk Status Recommendation -Sources

WASHINGTON (Dow Jones)--The World Organization for Animal Health has
recommended Mexico be awarded a favorable "controlled" mad-cow disease risk
status, according to Mexican and U.S. government officials. Decisions by the
Paris-based organization, known by the acronym OIE, are internationally
recognized and are accepted by the World Trade Organization. OIE's decisions
are used by countries to facilitate beef and cattle trade.

Mexico Trade Update: Mexico has reportedly offered a new trade protocol to
the USDA for consideration regarding the importation of U.S. cattle. The
news comes after Texas Agriculture Commissioner Todd Staples announced last
week an order to stop specific Canadian cattle from passing through the
state’s export facilities into Mexico. Texas cattlemen supported Staples’

Mexico has denied access to U.S. breeding stock and older cattle since
December 23, 2003, when the United States announced its first-ever case of
BSE. Currently, Mexico will only allow the importation of U.S. dairy
heifers under the age of 24 months, despite in-depth international
negotiations to broaden this to include all breeding stock. Mexico has
already agreed to take cattle and breeding stock under 30 months of age from
Canada while denying the same access with the United States, a move
inconsistent with international standards.

NCBA believes the move by Mexico to submit a new trade protocol is
encouraging. “We’ve been working for years to get all beef, cattle and
especially U.S. breeding stock, back into Mexico,” says NCBA’s Chief
Economist Gregg Doud. “With the second Minimal Risk Regions Rule in place
since November and our OIE status confirmed last May, there is no further
reason for Mexico to continue its ban on these animals.” Traditionally, the
United States has shipped approximately $125 million annually in live cattle
breeding stock to Mexico.

Commissioner Staples Says No To Canadian Cattle Until Mexico Accepts U.S.
Breeding Cattle

Austin - Texas Agriculture Commissioner Todd Staples has issued an order to
stop specific Canadian cattle from passing through the state’s export
facilities into Mexico.
“I am deeply disappointed that Canada has signed a live cattle trading
protocol with Mexico that is inconsistent with international standards,”
Commissioner Staples said. “The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
standards are paramount in ensuring trade decisions are based on sound
science and not political science.”
Initial reports stated the U.S. had signed off on this agreement between
Canada and Mexico, allowing the trade of certain dairy and beef cattle less
than 30 months of age - including breeding stock. However, Commissioner
Staples confirmed through high-level conversations with U.S. Department of
Agriculture officials that the U.S. has in fact not approved the pact.
Rather, USDA officials have expressed disappointment with their counterparts
in Canada for yielding confirmed science to political maneuvering.
“If USDA allows these cattle to cross the Canadian border into the U.S.,
they will not move through the Texas Department of Agriculture’s export
facilities along the Mexican border,” Commissioner Staples said. “I have
instructed TDA employees overseeing the agency’s livestock export facilities
along the Mexican border to not facilitate the trade of any Canadian cattle
that would be inconsistent with the protocol for exporting U.S. cattle to
Currently, Mexico will only allow the importation of U.S. dairy heifers
under the age of 24 months, despite in-depth international negotiations to
broaden this to breeding stock. Commissioner Staples is asking states that
border Mexico to follow Texas’ lead.
“I call upon the owners and managers of all livestock export facilities
along the U.S.-Mexico border to join me in this effort,” Commissioner
Staples said. “Please remember your most important customers - the U.S.
livestock producers. Until Mexico recognizes OIE trading standards and
begins to accept U.S. breeding cattle consistent with those standards, we
will continue this firm prohibition of specific Canadian cattle.”
TDA manages five livestock export facilities on the border in Brownsville,
Del Rio, Eagle Pass, El Paso and Laredo. Additionally, there are two
privately owned livestock export facilities in Texas and three other
facilities in New Mexico and Arizona.
Several countries have recognized those standards and are accepting U.S.
live cattle. In May 2007, the World Organizations for Animal Health (OIE)
formally classified the U.S. as a controlled risk country for BSE. This
classification, combined with strong U.S. regulatory safeguards, allows
broad trade of beef and live cattle consistent with international standards.
In January, Mexican and U.S. officials signed an agreement to establish a
livestock-working group to resolve many outstanding issues. Commissioner
Staples will offer any assistance to the group to come up with a solution
that benefits both nations.
“Mexico must recognize international standards and allow the importation of
U.S. breeding stock immediately,” Commissioner Staples said. “I consider
both Mexico and Canada to be excellent markets for Texas products, just as
Texans consume many Mexican-made products. I look forward to these issues
being resolved soon.”
All TDA press releases are also available via the Internet at

From: TSS
Subject: Mexico SAGARPA Assessment of BSE VS EFSA Scientific Report on the
Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of Mexico
Date: February 5, 2007 at 1:11 pm PST

Empresa solicitante: SAGARPA

Tipo del análisis efectuado: Cuantitativo

Temática: “Análisis de riesgo sobre la ocurrencia de la encefalopatía
espongiforme bovina en México”


The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), it is a neurological disease,
invariably fatal and with long period of incubation, that affects cattle.
Its etiologic agent is the prion. General consensus exists with respect to
that the feeding of contaminated meat and bone flours, it is the most
significant source in the dissemination and transmission of this etiologic
agent. At this time there is no exist evidence that BSE is transmitted by
means of embryos, their semen and in case of existing maternal transmission,
if this could happened it would be in a so extremely low rate that it could
not be considered like a trigger or leading factor of an epidemic.
Controversy in respect to other probable ways of transmission remains. The
BSE was diagnosed for the first time in 1986 in the United Kingdom. At this
time it exists in 26 countries, including a Canada and the United States of
North America (USA).

This document summarizes the analyzed elements and the results of the study
of the evaluation of the risk factors, of the epidemiology surveillance and
related activities, as well as the quantitative estimation of the risk with
respect to the probability of introduction of the disease to the Mexican


Demography and characteristics of the Mexican cattle industry: Cattle is one
of the main activities in the Mexican farming sector, due to its
contribution in the supply of meat (beef) products, dairy, among others; as
well as its participation in the international trade on cattle exports,
mainly to the United States of North America.

According to data of the 2001, cattle population is of 30.620.933 of heads,
of which 28.480.803 are beef cattle and 2.140.130 dairy cattle. The main
cattle production states are located in the center-north, where its
operation is intensive and its feeding is based on grains; as well as in the
coast of the Gulf of Mexico and the south-southeastern, with intensive
programs and feeding is based mainly on the pasturing (grass). The national
dairy herd, is calculated as specialized or technified that represent 17,44%
of the herd, semi-specialized 14,90% of the herd, double-purpose herd (beef
and dairy) 59,68% and the small family-run herd or the referred as
“backyard” (traspatio) 7,98%.Previous numbers are to be considered as an
estimation of the dairy livestock inventory by production units.
Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider that all races of pure breed can
be found in anyone of those groups.

Legal grounds: Mexico counts on a normative frame that covers (deals with)
the relevant aspects of the Epidemiology Surveillance of the BSE, like the
Federal Law of Animal Health, the Federal Law of Metrology and Regulation,
the General Law of Health and several Mexican Official Norms
(NOM-009-Z00-1994, Sanitary process of the meat, NOM-030-ZOO-1995,
Specifications and procedures for the import of beef, carcasses, viscera and
offal at zoo-sanitary inspection points, NOM-061-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary
specifications of nutritional products destined for animal feed and
NOM-060-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications for the transformation of
animals offal and its use in animal feeding). Wider and extended covertures
of these regulations were evaluated.

Veterinary infrastructure: The veterinary services in the country are
structural and normative organized by the Mexican State through the
Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Affairs, Fishery and Alimentary
(SAGARPA) Federally Empower, that is to say, that has the capacity and
authority to negotiate an to come to agreement with the States Governments
that integrate the Republic; to coordinate itself with the other
Secretariats of State; to deal with organizations of the Private and Social
sector as well as with the rest of the Civil Society as a whole.

The National Service of Health, Food Safety and Ag-alimentary Quality
(SENASICA), it is an organism of this Secretariat, which has attributions in
the matter of vegetable health, animal health and ag-alimentary safety and
is conformed by the following main directorates: Sanidad Vegetal, Salud
Animal, Inocuidad Agroalimentaria, Acuícola y Pesquera, Inspección
Fitozoosanitaria, (equivalent to U.S. APHIS, FSIS and VS –Veterinary
Services) Jurídica, Administración e Informática. In accordance with the
assigned attributions, it corresponds to central offices the substantive
part and the operative part, to the personnel assigned to the State
Delegations of the SAGARPA and other instances of the SENASICA.

Consequently, the four main areas are assigned to the Main directorate of
Salud Animal-Animal Health (DGSA) and to the Main directorate of Inspección
Fotozoosanitaria-Plant Inspection (DGIF) and Veterinary Services (SV) in
Mexico are in charge of: surveillance, epidemiology, animal movement,
zoo-sanitary campaigns and emergencies.

Imports This is perhaps one of the medullar points, in the sense that it
represents the information of the imports made during the risk periods and
therefore, it provides the fundamental information for the risk assessment.
In 1991, Mexico implemented measures to avoid the appearance of BSE, as the
disease had become a serious worldwide problem, reason why, live bovines
imports were prohibited, beef, beef products and by-products and in 1994
flour of meat and bone from countries affected by this disease was also
prohibited and in the 2000 MBM feeding ban was imposed. In order to mitigate
the risk of transmission of the EEB, a revision of the established
requirements for import for ruminants’ products began.

Cattle imports and its products and by-products, as well as specific risk
materials played a very important role in this study, where considerable
amounts of cattle imports from countries now affected by BSE were
identified, countries that at the time of the import they remained clean and
therefore just some preventive risk measures were in place.

Slaughter, Cattle disposition and Offal.- Different cattle slaughter schemes
were analyzed as well as the processes in use, finding some significant
differences among them, being the most important the sanitary jurisdiction
of the organizations that regulate us.

In Mexico, the slaughter is divided in three different systems, Federal
Inspection Type Plants (TIF), which has been increased in the past years; in
1992 they participated with the 13,5%, in 1997 with the 19,40% and in 2002
with the 26,60% of the national total. In the case of the municipal
slaughterhouses from 1992 to 1997, their slaughtered animals corresponded to
the 49,5% and for 2002 it was increased to 73,4%, whereas the slaughter in
private plants decreased of 37,10% in 1992 to 31,10%, in 1997 and from 1998
to date, we have no information.

The procedures to be followed by the establishments in the animal slaughter
and those that industrialize, process, packing, chilled/froze beef products
or by-products for human consumption, in order to obtain products of optimal
hygienic quality, are written in the NOM-009-ZOO-1994 “sanitary Process of

The direct consumption of beef can be stratified in three great destinies,
differentiated by the market that are destined to, the rural one, the one of
small centers of population, (and) the one of the big cities, characterized
each one of them by its consumption and the partial or integral
industrialization by direct consumer and by means of commercialization or
points of sale, as well as for the origin of the own supplier.(?)

Rendering of Cattle Products.

The processes applied by the rendering plants for obtaining the protein from
inedible offal, were evaluated.

Food elaboration and its use for animal feeding.- This analysis was focused
in the processes of food elaboration for animal consumption.

In Mexico, the control in the production of food from animal origin, as much
as the elaboration of the meat flour as that of the balanced food
manufacture it is regulated by the Mexican Official Norm NOM-061-ZOO-1999,
“Zoo-sanitary Specifications of nutritional products for animal consumption”
, which bans the use of MBM flours of ruminant origin or any mixture that
contains it for the elaboration of balanced meals for ruminants, and the
Mexican Official Norm NOM-060-ZOO-1999, “Zoo-sanitary Specifications for the
transformation of animal offal and its use in the animal feeding”.

In accordance with the Section of Manufacturers of Balanced Food for Animals
of the National Camera of the Industry of Transformation (CANACINTRA), there
are 396 balanced food plants registered, same that have the capacity to
produce more than 20 million tons a year, according to the numbers
registered during 1999-2002. 63% of such plants are integrated and produce
64% of the animal feed produced nationwide, the rest corresponds to
commercial plants.

The animal feed produced by the integrated plants, that is the most
significant part, during the 2002 it produced the 58,7% of the products
destined for raising of poultry, the 16,5% for swine, the 14,3% for dairy
and 9,2% for feedlots (cattle) and 1,3% for other species.

As far as the composition of the main raw materials to produce balanced
foods, these mainly correspond in 45% to domestic sorghum and 55% sorghum
concentrated; 16% to domestic yellow maize and 84% imported; 91% domestic
protein pastes and 9% imported; 80% of other domestic forage grains (broken
maize, wheat, barley, oats, etc.) and 20% imported and other ingredients
(wheat by-products, maize, vitamins, minerals, oils, etc.).






Neuropathies in Mexico, Epidemiology Surveillance Program.- For this
analysis, the legal elements related to the notification of the BSE were
taken into account, in Mexico, as well as the activities made by the
Commission Mexico - United States for the Prevention of the Aftosa Fever and
Other Exotic Diseases of Animals (CPA), official entity in charge of
carrying out this activity and other connected activities as training,
taking of samples and the diagnosis of laboratory.

BSE Diagnosis.

Veterinary Services diagnoses capacity was evaluated as well as its
adherence to the international standards, according to what is indicated by
the International Organization of Animal Health (OIE), as well as the
processes of taking and shipping of samples.

For the diagnosis of the BSE, the OIE recommends five laboratory tests:
Histopathology (HP), Immunohistochemistry (IHQ), Western blot
(immunotransferency), ELISA (enzimoinmunoassay) and Bio-assay in mouse. At
this time Mexico counts with two laboratories of diagnosis for this disease:
the National Center of Services of Diagnosis in Animal Health (CENASA) and
the Laboratory of high security of the CPA. The CENASA performs the
histopathology test and at the CPA the Immunohistochemistry test is carried

The reception of samples at CPA, it depends to a great extent on the
economic resources which are accounted for this activity, expense that is
approximately of $400,00 ($ 36.50 USD.) per sample received (includes the
material for conservation, packing and shipping), reason for what, have to
wait for the collection of several to be sent at the same time and in order
to reduce costs, but delaying the result. As the CPA does not have a
certified pathologist to carry-out the HP test technique, these samples are
sent to the CENASA for their diagnosis; this implies that such samples are
stored by approximately one week, since it doesn’t have the human resources
for its transfer.

The main problem at CENASA, for the right operation of the diagnosis of the
BSE, it is the lack of coordination on shipping and receiving of samples,
which is not done accordingly to the calendar of the laboratory and the
operative area, because in a short period of time the expected/projected
number of samples is exceeded, resulting in delays in accomplishment of the
tests and the disposition in excess of material and human resources.

At this moment, the techniques are being standardized, Immunohistochemistry
at the CENASA and the western blot (immunmotransferency) at the CPA, which
will allow us to have more tools for the diagnose in Mexico; in addition,
the WB allow us to count on another technique of the higher sensitivity and
specificity, that guarantees optimal result in less time (approximately 8

It must be mentioned that, we have had contemplated the formation of a
network of laboratories of diagnosis of TSE´s to specialized on the HP
technique, where we will have 6 regional laboratories and 4 universities
involved, this will in the future allow the processing and diagnosis of the
sample from its place of origin and only its confirmation by other
techniques at central level. For this, we already count with the procedure
for the authorization and verification of a laboratory of histopathology for
the diagnosis of the BSE.

Monetary Compensation to cattle dealers: Because the BSE is considered as an
exotic disease, a contingency fund that could be put to work in case the
disease appears, does not exist at this time.

In the case of the contingency funds, the national campaign for diseases
relies on a section on this subject. Nevertheless, for the exotic diseases
official norms do not exist and article 36 of the Federal Law of Animal
Health only establishes that will be due to create, but it does not explain
the mechanism to be considered for its creation.

The pre-established form to compensate the possible producers that are
themselves affected by the presence of BSE in their cattle, it will be from
the federal budget that is agreed upon the program Alliance for the Country
for the corresponding fiscal year.

In this sense, it is necessary to pinpoint that the minimum amount to
consider for this budget will be a 4% of the total assigned to the
Fito-zoo-sanitary Contingencies Plan on behalf of the Federal Government.

This will have a distribution by federal entity, which a specific amount
will be able to be assigned to joint, if necessary, to the DINESA against
the BSE. Also, the State Governments will proportionally contribute an equal
amount to the federal to be incorporated to the compensation funds of the
Device of Emergency. As for the cattlemen, they will have to come-up with
resources equivalent to the third part of the total amount assigned by the
Federal and State governments.

Animal identification and traceability of cattle products.- Different
elements were considered with which Mexico counts on to carry out the
traceability of animals and its products upon a sanitary problem, including
the animal identification and the organizations related to this activity.

Actually, the identification system of the cattle in Mexico is organized in
two forms, one State-ID with aims of demonstration of property and control
of cattle rustling and another Federal-ID, with aims of identification for
the development of the zoo-sanitary campaigns against the bovine
tuberculosis and brucellosis, first it is based on the registry and
recognition of the Hot-Brands of each producer, and the second in addition
to the previous system, one is based on a metallic earring of blue color
with a number of identification, which is described in the NOM-031-ZOO-1995,
Campaña Nacional Contra la Tuberculosis Bovina (Mycobacterium bovis),
National Campaign Against Bovine Tuberculosis.

This procedure assigns a number to an animal, which is used during
zoo-sanitary surveillance campaigns, these activities are registered along
with an identification number, in a document called test-opinion, in which
it is written down, in addition to the test results applied to the animals,
the identification and data of the cattle herd and ranch of origin of the
animal for its later traceability. This test-opinion is along with the
certificate of “Herd free of bovine tuberculosis” as described in the same
Mexican Official Norm.

According to the procedure previously described, in Mexico, there were
around 3.291 registered herds with 282.932 heads of bovines identified in
2003, that represents 0,94% of the total population in this country.

Nevertheless, in the same NOM, it’s expressed in point 11 referring to
mobilization that the animals coming from disease-free herds, they will be
able to be mobilized to any destination within the national territory with
no need to be tested for tuberculosis before its mobilization, if the
following requirements are met: obtain a zoo-sanitary certificate, and for
the zoo-sanitary certificate to be issued, certification that they come from
a disease-free herd and that the animals must have a disease-free herd


Considering that in order to mobilize the animals it is necessary to have a
valid disease-free zoo-sanitary certificate, we can estimate that there are
more than 3,431,022 identified animals, according to the information
obtained from the Statistical Report of the Cattle Mobilization of FY2000,
with information captured up to the 24 of August of 2001 by the National
Organism of Herd Certification, A.C., that represents the 11,4% of the
bovine total population on which we can observe that more than 50% of these
mobilizations are directed to slaughterhouses, 17% to feedlots, 15% for
export and 11% for pasturing.

Based on the above, experience of a suitable animal traceability is shown
specially in the case of the animals destined to be exported, where the USDA
when finding a positive animal reactor to the tests of tuberculosis in the
United States, it has been possible to trace it back to its the original
herd; on the other hand, the identification system used on dairy cattle,
which counts on a homogenous system of identification for production and
genetic improvement control, nevertheless, this mechanism although is
available for the federal government, it would make use of, only in the
presence of a serious epidemiology event.

Educational Programs, Awareness and Training.- The CPA, one of its
activities, is to maintain a permanent program of training courses on exotic
diseases of the animals, on a national context. In 1994, BSE awareness
programs were incorporated , with the diffusion of information, talks and
courses on the following areas: disease history, economic consequences,
etiology, transmission mechanisms, clinical signage, histopathology
injuries, differential diagnosis, measures of prevention and activities of
epidemiologist surveillance, supported by audio-visual means, these programs
are taken to a diverse audience, including the students of the last
semesters of Veterinary Medicine, to the personnel that conforms the
Quarantine National System, as well as Veterinary Doctors, government,
private and to other specialists.

ESTIMATION OF RISK (Risk Assessment)

According to the qualitative estimation in this assessment, it was
determined that the risk of occurrence of the disease in the bovine
population, is low.

The quantitative estimation index was located at 5.268908E 08 of the risk of
disease exposure of the national herd, number that represents numerically
like a low probability of occurrence of the problem in Mexico.



The BSE is a disease that was described for the first time in 1986,
nevertheless, today, epidemiologists have many unanswered questions on how
is transmitted.

The introduction of the BSE in Mexico would cause a serious socioeconomic
impact, commercial, political and probably of public health concern, because
the presence of the disease would restrict sanitarily and commercially,
disrupting the actual distribution of meat products at national level and to
other countries, independently of the impact in the consumption of the
inhabitants with respect to the beef consumption and products of bovine

Considering the way of transmission, in case of a breakout, the native
animals that are at greater risk of being infected in Mexico, those are the
dairy cattle in specialized systems and the bovines at feedlots in the arid
and tropical regions.

In Mexico, we got Laws, Mexican Official Norms and Agreements, that cover
relevant aspects of the epidemiology surveillance of the BSE, same that must
be fortified in its operative phase, mainly in its application and

The Mexican Official Norm NOM-030-ZOO-1995, Specifications and procedures
for the import of beef, carcasses, viscera and offal at zoo-sanitary
inspection points, prohibits the import of cattle products, however, fresh
beef has been imported, chilled, frozen and beef preparations, as long as it
comes from animals smaller of thirty months of age, which diminishes the
risk but does not exclude it.

The evaluation showed that the four great areas of concern are assigned to
the Main Directorate of Animal Health (DGSA) and to the Main Directorate of
Fito-zoo-sanitary Inspection (DGIF); responsibility of the Veterinary
Services in Mexico, in relation to the BSE are: epidemiology surveillance,
animal movement control, zoo-sanitary campaigns and emergencies;
functionality and capability of communicating among them was evaluated as we
as the capacity of response before a sanitary emergency caused by the BSE.

It is necessary to increase and to better coordination of the surveillance
activities, particularity between the areas of diagnoses and operational,
for the correct execution of the surveillance activities in the field.

The imported bovines (1996-2003) have been slaughtered and those destined to
improve genetics, once they conclude their productive life and are
discarded, will also be slaughtered.

The actions of detection of downer-cows need to be reinforced for its
processing at TIF plants, till now a deficient activity, where the majority
of the animals with such clinical characteristics, regularly are not taken
this plants but rather are slaughtered at same ranch/location and consumed
regionally or they are taken to slaughterhouses without supervision and
sanitary inspection.

Ante mortem inspections need to be reinforced at Federal Inspection Type
Plants, municipal and private slaughterhouses, mainly in these two last
ones, with the purpose of detecting bovines clinically affected by BSE.

There is commercial interest to incorporate flours of meat and bone of rumin
ants in the rations destined to the feeding of the bovines, like an
alternative source of protein matter, reason why official mechanisms must be
reinforced in preventing this type of illegal practices.

One of the tools in preventing the BSE is to avoid the exposure of the
native bovines to the consumption of presumably contaminated feed with the
pathological agent or unless is processed by means of a thermal process that
guarantees its inactivation. However, the heat treatment that the flours of
meat and bone are put under in XXXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX
during 20 minutes), even though this one, it does not guarantee the
destruction of the prion either, but it reduces its infectivity

The Country counts on regulations, in respect to the transformation of offal
(NOM-061-ZOO-1999), there still are deficiencies as to the number and
qualification of the personnel responsible in supervising their fulfillment
through inspection and verification.

Deficiencies in the availability of technical information at official and
private levels were detected, crucial information necessary for the
elaboration of the present assessment, such as the case of the information
on product imports and on rendering plants, were not available for the

Blood was not considered as a potential source of transmission of the BSE,
by-product in form of flour (dry blood), that is also produced by the
rendering plants and is used in animals feeds.

The BSE epidemiology surveillance program in Mexico must be reinforced by
focusing on a target animal study (bovine suspected of BSE and with
suggestive clinical signs of the disease). On the other hand, as a result
from this study, we found that a percentage of the obtained samples for BSE
testing have been inadequately collected and among other causes were:
absence of cerebral stem, incomplete cerebral stem, over-manipulated
samples, advanced changes (decompose) postmortem, not enough tissue to work
on, low concentration of conservative (solution) or samples taken from
inadequate age of animal (too young); showing all of these, a necessity to
review these procedures.

It was also detected the fact that, as a routine practice the samples sent
for the diagnosis of bovine rabies, whenever they come out positive to this
disease, they are no longer processed for the BSE testing, discarding with
this, the possibility of finding both diseases in a same animal, rabies
virus and the BSE prion. It is also concluded that with the loss of
diagnosis material, it prevented us from obtaining valuable epidemiology
information useful in restructuring our surveillance program.

The identification of the cattle, as well as the traceability of its
products and by-products, presents serious deficiencies at national level,
which is important in case the BSE is detected in the Country, given its
importance like a primordial component to trace, to prevent and to eradicate
this and other animal diseases, turning out to be an additional vital tool
to determine the dissemination degree in case of break-out in the country,
that would immediately allow us to be able to establish its origin (native
or imported) and to take the appropriate counter-epidemic measures.

From 1994, the Commission Mexico - United States for the Prevention of
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) and other Exotic Diseases (CPA), it has carried
out activities of awareness and training on BSE, however, this has been
centered to certain zones of the country, leaving some other zones,
particularly the rural zones without cover, same that can provide with
valuable epidemiology information and some cases for diagnosis of neuropathy
in ruminants.

According to the analysis made on the risk assessment in its qualitative
modality, it is considered like low-risk, the risk of introduction of the
BSE to the national herd, whereas the quantitative study locates it in
values of 5.268908E-08.


We ought:

to reinforce the inspection and supervision activities by the sanitary
authority of the SAGARPA over all of those involved in the cattle production
chain, in respect to the fulfillment and application of the established
technical regulations expressed on the official norms on the monitoring of
BSE, specially the NOM-060-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications for the
transformation of animals offal and its use in animal feeding and the
NOM-061-ZOO-1999, Zoo-sanitary specifications of nutritional products for
animal consumption;

to increase the number of inspectors (Vet Doctors) as much as governmental
as private, with a vision of having a better supervision of the rendering
plants and feed factories. It is recommendable that such inspectors have a
veterinary doctor’s degree.

to reinforce the active epidemiology surveillance subsystem, having special
attention to aim at target animals and the size of the statistical test, as
well as its stratification at national level;

to review, to update and to homologate the criteria and definitions of the
Mexican official norms related to the monitoring of the BSE and the
requirements of import, according to norms NOM-008, NOM-030 and NOM-060;

to provide technical and legal elements in the official norms, that may
allow to optimize the use of financial and human resources (federal, state
and private), with the purpose of that the material and human
infrastructure, the installed diagnoses and the potential, can be used with
greater efficiency, in the prevention activities, diagnosis and surveillance
of the BSE in Mexico;

to homologate the mechanism of training in the obtaining of the samples for
the BSE, using the technique of the teaspoon, by means of a national

to have a certified pathologist for the high security laboratory of the CPA,
because this situation of not having one, causes the delay in the processing
of samples, as well as the loss of economic resources by requiring the
support of the CENASA;

to plan the taking of samples at a national level and to coordinate its
shipment to the CPA for its processing in the laboratory of high security or
its re-expedition to the CENASA, with the purpose of optimizing the

to obtain funds and allocate them at each state, in order to compensate
cattle dealers affected by the animal culling at risk by BSE, in case of BSE
showing up in Mexico, the same or similar mechanism are to established for
the handling of monetary compensation, like the one used on the Alliance for
the Country or to extend the already existing state government faculties, by
means of an exclusive and specific account for the implementation of BSE
comp payment.

to implement a national animal identification and traceability system, its
products and by-products, that it may allow us to apply prevention measures
and control of diseases, as it would be the case of the BSE.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of
Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the
following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 1):

Gallinaza and pollinaza- feather meal (hay bed or substrate on which birds
grow up, constituted by rice husk, straw or another type of hay,
agriculturist, that at the end of the raising cycle of young hens or
chicken, contains the feces of the animals that were bred on it, as well as
rest of non-consumed food by the birds), it has been considered in multiple
occasions, like an element of potential risk in the transmission of the
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), when it is used to feed ruminants.
The risk is generated, as it is common, the bird feed, contains flours of
meat and bone of ruminant like source of protein. In this way, in theory, if
some of the bovines with which the meat and bone flour was prepared as bird
feed were infected with the BSE prion and given the high resistance of the
agent (prion) to high temperatures, in the industrial process as the making
of the flour, like the making of the nutritional concentrated feed for
birds, and even the passage by digestive-tract of the bird, it would not
guarantee the destruction of the BSE prion, reason why the possibility would
exist, when gallinaza or pollinaza is used in the feeding of ruminants, this
could infect susceptible ruminants.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of
Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the
following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 2):

As much gallinaza as pollinaza, they can contain up to a 3% of wasted food,
independently of bird feces that could also contain the prion, all implying
that the flours of meat and bone of bovine origin, can be consumed by other
bovines and by doing this, constituting a possible situation of BSE risk.

Norma NOM-060-ZOO-1999 Zoo-sanitary specifications for the transformation of
animal’s offal and its use in animal feeding and the NOM-061-ZOO-1999
Zoo-sanitary Specifications of nutritional products for animal consumption,
they clearly indicate the prohibition to feed ruminants with flours of meat
and bone of ruminant origin, however, the prohibition to feed ruminants with
gallinaza or pollinaza, is not contemplated in these norms.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of
Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the
following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 3):

Other elements to consider are the production cycles of the farms of birds
in Mexico, a common practice is that when a cycle is reached (ended) “all
inside, all outside”, and the pollinaza and gallinaza are destined to feed
the cattle. Depending on the type and the characteristics of the bed, it is
possible to calculate an approximated weight of 13,9 kg. by square meter of
bird farm surface.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of
Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the
following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 4):

In the Mexican market, two types of products are accepted: pollinaza and
gallinaza, which has been consolidated as a production system, considering
that near 90% of the feces are used as ruminant’s feed, with prices reaching
near those of cereal grains, the rest is used in agriculture.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of
Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the
following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 6, paragraph 5):

The use of the animal feces like source of high nutrients supply, it obeys
mainly to its high content of mineral matter and non-protein nitrogen. In
general, nitrogen is concentrated in greater amount in bird feces. What is
doubtless, it is that the feces are raw material available all the year long
for animal feeding, especially bovines.

The FAO (1980) made a description of the physical composition of pollinaza
as it is detailed next:

Feces 62%

Bed 31%

Wasted Feed 3%

Feathers 2%

Unknown ingredients related to fresh matter 2%

Source: The FAO. Feed from Wastes Animal: State of knowledge, Production
animal and Health, to paper 18. Rome, Italy 1980.


Making public the information that has been eliminated of the report, it
would open the door for those in the grain business to use it for their
benefit and by pressing the government/the authority to establish a NOM
banning such products as ruminant feed. This would bring/cause an important
alteration in the commercialization of these products nationwide, which in
turn would remarkably increase the production costs of the cattle in feed
lots. Today, we foresee escalating grains prices at medium term, originated
by its use in the ethanol production; this would aggravate the situation and
force a NOM as described before, which in addition, if our sanitary status
with respect to the BSE is considered low, it would be obviously excessive
cost and highly harmful for the producer of birds and cattle. It is why,
that it was decided to block the reference information.

With foundation in Article 14, fraction VI, of the Federal Law of
Transparency and Access to the Governmental Public Information, the
following paragraphs have been blocked:

Justification of the blockade (p. 12, paragraph 3):

During the period between 1996 to 2003 years in which, considering the long
period of incubation of the BSE, the disease was already present in the
United States of America and Canada, Mexico as usual, imported considerable
amounts of calves destined for dairy production. In the same term
“bullfight” bulls from Spain were imported once Europe reached a free
status from FMD, same that allowed the import of some cattle for
reproduction from other European countries, with exception of the United
Kingdom and Ireland, countries in which BSE already existed.

In all the cases these imports were immediately stopped even before the
confirmation of BSE in those countries, nevertheless, as already indicated,
the ample period of incubation of the disease, those imports are looked as
of certain risk, even though in that moment they were not.

The nonexistence of a national animal identification and traceability system
at that time made it impossible to establish the destiny of most of those
animals and to even know if they have been eliminated at the end of its
productive life. It is possible to indicate that the recent imports of
heifers coming from the United States of America and in the near future from
Canada, new requirements and actions that guarantee their traceability and
other measures to mitigate the BSE risk, are in place.

Even though during the administration of the Lic. Vicente Fox, the SAGARPA
made a concerted effort to establish the National System of Individual
Cattle Identification (SINIIGA), the magnitude, cost and coverage of the
project, its conclusion in the short and medium term are way far distant,
what implies that it will be long time before Mexico can count on a suitable
(working) national system of identification and traceability of animals and
products of origin animal.

The blockade of the above paragraph obeys to the convenience of not exposing
to the Federal Government to unnecessarily critics that even though funded,
it would not contribute to the solution of a problem that, although is of
urgent attention, by its magnitude and cost, it exceeds in much, the present
capacities as much of the Government, like of the National Cattlemen Sector.
The critic would sustain in that what it is said in such paragraph is purely
speculative, without possibility of corroborating it documentarily.



EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR)
of Mexico

Last updated: 8 September 2004 Publication Date: 20 August 2004

Adopted July 2004 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-083)

Summary of the Scientific Report

The European Food Safety Authority and its Scientific Expert Working Group
on the Assessment of the Geographical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Risk (GBR) were asked by the European Commission (EC) to provide an
up-to-date scientific report on the GBR in Mexico, i.e. the likelihood of
the presence of one or more cattle being infected with BSE, pre-clinically
as well as clinically, in Mexico. This scientific report addresses the GBR
of Mexico as assessed in 2004 based on data covering the period 1980-2003.

The BSE agent was probably imported into Mexico and could have reached
domestic cattle. These cattle imported could have been rendered and
therefore led to an internal challenge in the mid to late 1990s. It is
possible that imported meat and bone meal (MBM) into Mexico reached domestic
cattle and leads to an internal challenge around 1993.

It is likely that BSE infectivity entered processing at the time of imported
‘at - risk’ MBM (1993) and at the time of slaughter of imported live ‘at -
risk’ cattle (mid to late 1990s). The high level of external challenge is
maintained throughout the reference period, and the system has not been made
stable. Thus it is likely that BSE infectivity was recycled and propagated
from approximately 1993. The risk has since grown consistently due to a
maintained internal and external challenge and lack of a stable system.

EFSA concludes that the current geographical BSE risk (GBR) level is III,
i.e. it is likely but not confirmed that domestic cattle are (clinically or
pre-clinically) infected with the BSE-agent. The GBR is likely to increase
due to continued internal and external challenge, coupled with a very
unstable system.


[Docket No. APHIS-2006-0041] RIN 0579-AC01

[Federal Register: January 9, 2007 (Volume 72, Number 5)]
[Proposed Rules]
[Page 1101-1129]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access []

DERIVED FROM BOVINES [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0041] RIN 0579-AC01
Date: January 9, 2007 at 9:08 am PST


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