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From: TSS ()
Subject: Direct Detection of Soil-Bound Prions
Date: November 12, 2007 at 7:32 am PST

Direct Detection of Soil-Bound Prions

Sacha Genovesi1, Liviana Leita2, Paolo Sequi3, Igino Andrighetto4, M. Catia Sorgato1,5, Alessandro Bertoli1*

1 Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy, 2 Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Gorizia, Italy, 3 Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante, Roma, Italy, 4 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Italy, 5 CNR Istituto di Neuroscienze, Padova, Italy

Abstract

Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are contagious prion diseases affecting sheep and cervids, respectively. Studies have indicated that horizontal transmission is important in sustaining these epidemics, and that environmental contamination plays an important role in this. In the perspective of detecting prions in soil samples from the field by more direct methods than animal-based bioassays, we have developed a novel immuno-based approach that visualises in situ the major component (PrPSc) of prions sorbed onto agricultural soil particles. Importantly, the protocol needs no extraction of the protein from soil. Using a cell-based assay of infectivity, we also report that samples of agricultural soil, or quartz sand, acquire prion infectivity after exposure to whole brain homogenates from prion-infected mice. Our data provide further support to the notion that prion-exposed soils retain infectivity, as recently determined in Syrian hamsters intracerebrally or orally challanged with contaminated soils. The cell approach of the potential infectivity of contaminated soil is faster and cheaper than classical animal-based bioassays. Although it suffers from limitations, e.g. it can currently test only a few mouse prion strains, the cell model can nevertheless be applied in its present form to understand how soil composition influences infectivity, and to test prion-inactivating procedures.


FOR those interested, please see full text here ;


http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=D66E772C378D6980A450D7ADFE27C519?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001069&representation=PDF


http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001069

From: TSS
Subject: Prions Adhere to Soil Minerals and Remain Infectious
Date: April 14, 2006 at 7:10 am PST

PLoS Pathogens | www.plospathogens.org April 2006 | Volume 2 | Issue 4 | e32 0007

Sorption of Prions to Soil


http://pathogens.plosjournals.org/archive/1553-7374/2/4/pdf/10.1371_journal.ppat.0020032-S.pdf


http://pathogens.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-pdf&file=10.1371_journal.ppat.0020032-L.pdf


Epidemiology Update March 23, 2006
As of today, 13 locations and 32 movements of cattle have been examined with
27 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
locations and herds will continue. In addition, state and federal officials
have confirmed that a black bull calf was born in 2005 to the index animal
(the red cow). The calf was taken by the owner to a local stockyard in July
2005 where the calf died. The calf was appropriately disposed of in a local
landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.


http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml

> The calf was appropriately disposed of in a local

> landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.


well, back at the ranch with larry, curly and mo heading up the USDA et al,
what would you expect, nothing less than shoot, shovel and shut up.
no mad cow in USA, and feed ban working. r i g h t. ...


but what has past history shown us, evidently it has shown the USDA et al
nothing ;


Disposal of meat and bone meal (MBM) derived from specified risk material
(SRM) and over thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill
The Committee was asked to consider a quantitative risk assessment of the
disposal of meat and bone meal derived from specified risk material and over
thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill, prepared in response to a request
from the Committee at its June 1999 meeting.

The Committee was asked whether, in the light of the results of the risk
assessment, it held to its earlier published (June 1999) view that landfill
was an acceptable outlet for MBM of any origin, although it retained a
preference for incineration. The Committee reiterated that it had a strong
preference for incineration as the favoured route for the disposal of MBM
and were uneasy about the use of landfill for the disposal of this material.
If there were cases where incineration was not practical the Committee felt
it would be preferable for any material going to landfill to be
pressure-cooked first or possibly stored above ground prior to incineration.

http://www.seac.gov.uk/summaries/summ_0700.htm


Disposal of BSE suspect carcases
It is the Department's policy to dispose of BSE suspects by incineration
wherever feasible. No BSE suspect carcases have been landfilled since 1991.

http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/bse/publichealth/notification.html#disp


3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach
was to accord it a _very low profile indeed_. Dr. A Thiermann showed
the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought
this was a fanatical incident to be _avoided_ in the US _at all costs_...

snip...


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf


PAUL BROWN SCRAPIE SOIL TEST


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/seac07/tab03.pdf


1.2 Visual Imact

It is considered that the requirement for any carcase incinerator
disign would be to ensure that the operations relating to the reception,
storage and decepitation of diseased carcasses must not be publicly
visible and that any part of a carcase could not be removed or
interfered with by animals or birds.

full text;


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1989/04/03006001.pdf


http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/ssc/out311_en.pdf

Some unofficial information from a source on the inside looking out -

Confidential!!!!

As early as 1992-3 there had been long studies conducted on small
pastures containing scrapie infected sheep at the sheep research station
associated with the Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Whether these are documented...I don't know. But personal recounts both
heard and recorded in a daily journal indicate that leaving the pastures
free and replacing the topsoil completely at least 2 feet of thickness
each year for SEVEN years....and then when very clean (proven scrapie
free) sheep were placed on these small pastures.... the new sheep also
broke out with scrapie and passed it to offspring. I am not sure that TSE
contaminated ground could ever be free of the agent!!
A very frightening revelation!!!

----------

Greetings, this brings to mind cattle, commingling with deer, elk, and sheep or goat, and potential ramifications thereof, from grazing. I assume there is uptake of soil, while grazing ??? so you get CWD infected deer and or elk, or Scrapie infected sheep or goats, with cattle grazing in same pastures, the potential for transmission via this route is very real. ...

IN Texas the Triple SSS policy is alive and well. most all downers and sick
cattle that drop are burried right where they drop in Texas ;


"Anthrax is under-reported, because many ranchers in this area automatically dispose

of carcasses and vaccinate livestock when they find dead animals that are bloated or

bloody--common signs of the disease," said Dr. Fancher. "Anthrax is a reportable

disease, however, and it's important to know when an outbreak occurs, so other

ranchers can be notified to vaccinate.


http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/news/pr/2005/2005Jul_Anthrax_Confirmed_in_SuttonCty.pdf

kind regards,
terry



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