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From: TSS ()
Subject: SCRAPIE UPDATE USA As of December 31, 2006 with OHIO topping out the list again
Date: March 11, 2007 at 6:14 pm PST

Infected and Source Flocks

As of December 31, 2006, there were 78 scrapie infected and source flocks (Figure 3). There were 2 new infected and source flocks reported in December (Figure 4) with a total of 15 flocks reported for FY 2007 (Figure 5). The total number of infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2007 is 14 (Figure 6), with 4 flocks released in December. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2007 = 0.93:1. In addition, as of December 31, 2006, 80 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 8 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This total includes 22 newly confirmed cases in December 2006 (Figure 8). Eighteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in March 2006. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released for FY 2007 are depicted in Chart 3. New infected and source statuses from 1997 to 2006 are depicted in Chart 4.


http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html


Scrapie Program FY 2006
Revised February 5, 2007


http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/yearly_report/yearly_report_2006.ppt

PLEASE note the high rate of scrapie in Ohio as at December, 31, 2006. I have been concerned about this for years, and questioned it several times over the years, Scrapie and CJD in Ohio ???


Item # Date Time Lines Subject
011956 2002-11-06 09:17 765 Re: SCRAPIE/CJD OHIO ???

https://lists.aegee.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0211&L=BSE-L&P=R3874&X=448C1D33204F216F58&Y=flounder9%40verizon.net
010952 2001-11-15 15:49 651 Re: U.S.A.--NEW SCRAPIE ERADICATION RULES $ OHIO $ sporadic CJDs ?

https://lists.aegee.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0111&L=BSE-L&P=R2745&X=448C1D33204F216F58&Y=flounder9%40verizon.net

010951 2001-11-15 11:48 582 U.S.A.--NEW SCRAPIE ERADICATION RULES $ OHIO $ sporadic CJDs ?


https://lists.aegee.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0111&L=BSE-L&P=R2162&X=448C1D33204F216F58&Y=flounder9%40verizon.net

010701 2001-08-02 14:10 193 Global Compliance of TSE regulations? & sCJD's, scrapie and feed mils in OHIO ?


https://lists.aegee.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0108&L=BSE-L&P=R346&X=448C1D33204F216F58&Y=flounder9%40verizon.net


Subject: Re: SCRAPIE/CJD OHIO ???
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Date: Wed, 6 Nov 2002 09:17:33 -0600
Content-Type: text/plain

######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Date: Thu, 2 Aug 2001 14:10:25 -0700
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Sender: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Subject: Global Compliance of TSE regulations? & sCJD's,
scrapie and feed mils in OHIO ?

Greetings All,

if you read # 8, answer # 2,

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/rdad/FSISDirectives/FSISDir9000.1Att2.pdf

if one country refused (potential BSE risks for whatever reason) but can
import to another Country that see no risk from same product, how can
global compliance take place ?

(maybe i misunderstood this)

and still don't understand how U.S. can have BSE Free status with the
'passive' surveillance that has only tested 13,916 cows in 13 years???

i don't mean to sound like broken record again, but if one refuses to
test in sufficient numbers, one can stay BSE free for a long time. much
longer than ones that are testing to find.

when U.S. ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban is still being violated to date.
most recent posted;

Bruce A. Burgett, General Manager The Carrollton Farmers Exchange 204
Second Street, N.W. Carrollton, OH 44615

WARNING LETTER WL-CIN-8669-01 JULY, 12, 2001

Dear Mr. Burgett:

snip...

Our inspection found your firm failed to label feeds that contain, or
may contain, prohibited materials with the required cautionary statement
"DO NOT FEED TO CATTLE OR OTHER RUMINANTS". We suggest this statement be
distinguished by different type size or color or other means of
highlighting the statement so it is easily noticed by the purchaser.

There are no written procedures for cleaning out or flushing equipment
after mixing feeds containing prohibited material. Additionally, you do
not have records documenting that the system was cleaned or flushed in
accordance with any written procedures.

You should establish adequate procedures and verify that the
flush/clean-out method you use cleans out the remainder of preceding
batches containing prohibited materials. Note: If you flush with feed
ingredients, or sequence with non-ruminant feed, you must also label
these products with the required cautionary statement "Do not feed to
Cattle or Other Ruminants".

Your customer records are not sufficient to track the distribution of
products that contain, or may contain, prohibited material

snip...

end

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1506d.pdf

other mad cow feed violations can be located at;
http://63.75.126.221/scripts/wlcfm/resultswl.cfm

simply type in 'animal protein'

I cannot digest the fact the U.S. is BSE/TSE free in U.S. cattle with
the testing to date and violations to date of feed ban.

another thing i have noticed, look at the number of feed ban violations
in the state of OHIO. Ohio is the number one violator (reporting).

'then' look at the amount of SCRAPIE in that state;

SCRAPIE *** SIS Status Report: 27-JUL-01 *** STATE: OH

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/scrapie/sis_stat_inf.html

then consider the cross contamination risks posed in the 'warning
letters' of violators in feed mils?

now let's look at CJD stats;

CJD stats Ohio

(you must take into consideration not everybody knows of this site, and
not everyone has computers, so there is probably many more)
http://www.fortunecity.com/healthclub/cpr/349/oh.htm

then look at Ohio's 'official' CJD statistics, (there is none)...

Two diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and cyclosporiasis, became
reportable in July, 1998, and will be included in the 1998 Annual Summary.

http://www.odh.state.oh.us/data/inf_dis/prevmonthly/1999/02/pmfeb99.htm#annsum

seems Ohio CJD reporting system has flaws, 0 cases of CJD reported in
Ohio, latest stats below;

http://www.odh.state.oh.us/Data/Inf_Dis/idann/Idsum98/98annsummary.pdf

http://www.odh.state.oh.us/Data/Inf_Dis/idann/Idsum98/98-94.pdf

Ohio feed ban violations 'highest documented',

Scrapie in the state of Ohio 'highest documented',

cross contamination in Ohio 'highest documented',

sCJD seems to be rising in Ohio and other States.

could there be a link to all this and the sporadic CJD cases that are
not documented in the state of Ohio, especially since the most recent
findings of the potential link between some strains of Scrapie and some
strains of sporadic CJDs.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98, Issue 7, 4055-4059, March 27, 2001

Medical Sciences Ex vivo propagation of infectious sheep scrapie agent
in heterologous epithelial cells expressing ovine prion protein

D. Vilette*,, O. Andreoletti, F. Archer*, M. F. Madelaine*, J. L.
Vilotte§, S. Lehmann¶, and H. Laude*

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/98/7/4055?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Ex+vivo+propagation+of+infectious+sheep+scrapie&fulltext=Ex+vivo+propagation+of+infectious+sheep+scrapie&searchid=QID_NOT_SET&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0

Sheep consumption: a possible source of spongiform encephalopathy in humans.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3915057&dopt=Abstract

something to ponder...

thank you, Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA


Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Sender: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Subject: U.S.A. 'MAD COW' FEED BAN WARNING LETTERS 'UPDATE' September 4,
2001


DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Food and Drug Administration

Cincinnati District Office Central Region 6751 Steger Drive Cincinnati,
OH 45237-3097 Telephone: (513) 679-2700 FAX: (513) 679-2771

WARNING LETTER

WL-CIN-9475-01 August 21, 2001

HAND DELIVERY REOUESTED

Barbara J. Hinton, President The Hyland Co., Inc. P.O. Box 29 Ashland,
KY 41105-0029

Dear Ms. Hinton:

From 7/24-27/2001 representatives from the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) and the State of Kentucky conducted an inspection of your feed
mill. The inspection found significant deviations from the requirements
set forth in Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 589.2000
-Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. This regulation is
intended to prevent the establishment and amplification of Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

The inspection found your firm failed to label feeds that contain, or
may contain, prohibited materials with the required cautionary statement
"Do not feed to Cattle or Other Ruminants". We suggest this statement be
distinguished by different type size or color or other means of
highlighting the statement so it is easily noticed by the purchaser.

Your procedures for cleaning out and/or flushing equipment after mixing
feeds containing prohibited material are not adequate to prevent the
cross-contamination of feeds not formulated to contain prohibited material.

You should establish adequate procedures and verify that the
flush/clean-out method you use cleans out the remainder of preceding
batches containing prohibited materials. Note: If you flush with feed
ingredients, or sequence with non-ruminant feed, you must also label
these products with the required cautionary statement "Do not feed to
Cattle or Other Ruminants".

The deviations from regulations as noted above cause products being
manufactured and distributed by your facility to be adulterated within
the meaning of Section 402(a)(4) and misbranded within the meaning of
Section 403(0 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act).

This letter is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deficiencies
at your facility. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal
feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation
and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with
the law. We have enclosed a copy

Page 1

snip...

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1650d.pdf

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Food and Drug Administration

Cincinnati District Office Central Region 675t Steger Drive Cincinnati,
OH 45237-3097 Telephone: (513) 679-2700 FAX: (513) 679-2771

WARNING LETTER

WL-CIN-8748-01

CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

August 17, 2001

Mark W. Roesner, Owner/President Copley Feed & Supply 1468 S. Cleveland
Massilion Road CopIcy, OH 44321

Dear Mr. Roesner:

On 6/19,21/2001 a Food and Drug Administration investigator conducted an
inspection of your medicated feed mill located at 1468 S. Cleveland
Massilion Road, Copley, OH. The inspection revealed significant
deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant
Feed. This regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and
amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Our inspection
found your firm failed to label feeds that contain, or may contain,
prohibited materials with the required cautionary statement "Do not feed
to Cattle or Other Ruminants"· We suggest this statement be
distinguished by different type size or color or other means of
highlighting the statement so it is easily noticed by the purchaser. It
also revealed that your customer records are not sufficient to track the
distribution of products that contain, or may contain, prohibited
material The deviations from the BSE regulations, as noted above, cause
products being manufactured and distributed by your facility to be
adulterated within the meaning of Section 402(a)(4) and misbranded
within the meaning of Section 403(f) of the Act.

This letter is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deficiencies
at your facility. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal
feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation
and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with
the law. We have enclosed a copy of the FDA's Small Entity Compliance
Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation. You should take
prompt action to correct these violations, and you should establish a
system whereby violations do not recur. Failure to promptly correct
these violations may result in regulatory action without further notice.
Such actions include seizure and/or injunction.

snip...

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1646d.pdf

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Food and Drug Administration

Cincinnati District Office Central Region 6751 Steger Drive Cincinnati,
OH 45237-3097 Telephone: (513) 679-2700 FAX: (513) 679-2771

WARNING LETTER

WL-CIN-9099-01

CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

August 16, 2001

Charles A. Holdten, CEO/President Agri-Mark Farmers Co-op, Inc. 813
Clark Avenue Ashland, OH 44805

Dear Mr. Holdten:

On 7/10,12-13/2001 two Food and Drug Administration investigators
conducted an inspection of your medicated feed mill located at 6800
Chestnut Street, Sterling, OH. The inspection revealed significant
deviations from the requirements set forth in Title 21, Code of Federal
Regulations, Part 589.2000 -Animal Proteins Prohibited in Ruminant Feed.
This regulation is intended to prevent the establishment and
amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).

Our inspection found your firm failed to label feeds that contain, or
may contain, prohibited materials with the required cautionary statement
"Do not feed to Cattle or Other Ruminants". We suggest this statement be
distinguished by different type size or color or other means of
highlighting the statement so it is easily noticed by the purchaser.

It also revealed that your customer records are not sufficient to track
the distribution of products that contain, or may contain, prohibited
material

The deviations from the BSE regulations, as noted above, cause products
being manufactured and distributed by your facility to 0e adulterated
within the meaning of Section 402(a)(4) and misbranded within the
meaning of Section 403(f) of the Act.

This letter is not intended to be an all.inclusive list of deficiencies
at your facility. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal
feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation
and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with
the law. We have enclosed a copy of the FDA's Small Entity Compliance
Guide to assist you with complying with the regulation. You should take
prompt action to coneet these violations, and you should establish a
system whereby violations do not recur. Failure to promptly correct
these violations may result in regulatory action, such as seizure and/or
injunction, without further notice.

Our investigators also found that you mixed and distributed a cattle
feed containing Lincomycin, a drug not indicated for use in cattle.
Further, you did not flush the mixer, storage bins, and bulk truck used
in the manufacture of the feed containing Lincomycin. The failure to
adequately flush this equipment immediately following this feed caused
the subsequent cross-contamination of the cattle feed, dairy cow feed
and calf feeds that were handled in this equipment after the original
product. You should implement procedures and/or practices to prevent the
recurrence of this type of violation.

You should notify this office in writing within fifteen (15) working
days of the receipt of this letter of the steps you have taken to bring
your firm into compliance with the law. Your response should include an
explanation of each step being taken to correct the CGMP violations and
prevent their recurrence. If corrective action cannot be completed
within 15 working days, state the reason for the delay and the date by
which the corrections will be completed. Include copies of any available
documentation demonstrating that corrections have been made.

Your response should be directed to Stephen J. Rabe, Compliance Officer
at the address listed above.

District Director Cincinnati District

Attachment: Small Entity Compliance Guide

Cc: Scott A. Crossen, Branch Manager Agri-Mark Farmers Co-op, Inc. 6800
Chestnut Street Sterling, OH 44276

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1645d.pdf

sadly disgusted in Bacliff, Texas USA Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Date: Tue, 9 Oct 2001 16:18:47 -0700
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Sender: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Subject: RUMINANT-TO-RUMINANT FEED BAN WARNING LETTER/Scrapie in Ohio?

Greetings List Members,

Am i the only one that finds it odd that the State of Ohio has so many
of these mad cow feed ban violations?

out of some 50 in 2001, Ohio has had some 27 of the violations.

what gives?

or, are they just the honest ones reporting?

what about all the Scrapie in this State?

should there not be concern for cross contamination's?

14 Records Found for State(s) OH.

14 (infected FLOCKS)

http://cofcs18.aphis.usda.gov/scrapie/reports/sisinfect.php

kind regards, Terry S. Singeltary Sr., Bacliff, Texas USA

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Food and Drug Administration

Cincinnati District Office Central Region 6751 Steger Drive Cincinnati,
OH 45237-3097 Telephone: (513) 679-2700 FAX: (513) 679-2771

WARNING LETTER

WL-CIN-7703-01 September 20, 2001

CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

William P. Herrington, President Buckeye Feed Mills, Inc. (dba) Buckeye
Nutrition 330 East Schultz Avenue Dalton, OH 44618

Dear Mr. Herrington:

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigators conducted an inspection
of your feed mill from April 5-24, 2001. The inspection found
significant and serious deviations from the requirements set forth in
Title 21, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 589.2000 -Animal Proteins
Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. This regulation is intended to prevent the
establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
(BSE). These deviations caused products manufactured by your firm to be
adulterated and misbranded.

The violations are as follows:

Our investigators documented that you did not flush or sequence the
incoming receiving pit conveyor systems and ingredient storage bins
after the receipt of ruminant meat and bone meal to avoid contamination
of ingredients that were used in ruminant feeds.

Further, the investigators found that your firm failed to label feeds
that contain, or may contain, prohibited materials with the required
cautionary statement "Do not feed to Cattle or Other Ruminants".

There are no written procedures for cleaning out or flushing the
receiving pit conveyor system and ingredient storage bins. Additionally,
you do not have records documenting that the system was cleaned or
flushed in accordance with any written procedures.

Your procedure for sequencing/flushing of the mixers (MOP-004 rev. date
2/2/98) allows for feeds containing ruminant meat and bone meal to be
followed by horse and rabbit feeds that should bear the cautionary
statement but do not.

Page I

snip...

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1779d.pdf

TSS

NEW SCIENTIST MAGAZINE 4/02/01

NEW SCIENTIST EDITORIAL PAGE 3

MAD SHEEP DISEASE?

IF THERE is one categorical pronouncement you
can safely make about prion diseases like BSE
or CJD, it is that one should not make
categorical pronouncements. "British beef is
safe" and "there is no BSE in Germany" come
to mind. Now there are two more: "scrapie is
safe", and "people don't catch sporadic CJD".
Scrapie is the most widespread prion
disease, infecting untold numbers of
sheep worldwide. Sporadic CJD is the
old-fashioned pre-BSE kind that is supposed
to happen spontaneously in unlucky people.
But a surprise observation in France suggests
some sCJD cases--though by no means all--may
be linked to scrapie after all (see p 4).

For years, British authorities asserted that
BSE was harmless because it was a form of
scrapie. In fact, the only evidence scrapie
is safe is some broad-brush epidemiology, good
as far as it goes but unable to reveal
occasional risks for some people from some
sheep. Alarm bells should have rung in 1980
when researchers gave monkeys scrapie by
feeding them infected brains. But that
research, like so much other work on
prion diseases, was never followed up.
We still have little idea what BSE does
in pigs and chickens. The Queniborough
vCJD outbreak (see p 5) would be easier
to understand if we knew how much brain
we must eat to be infected. As for scrapie,
it shouldn't take a chance finding to
tell us that there may be dangerous sheep
out there.

Suspect symptoms

What if you can catch old-fashioned CJD by
eating meat from a sheep infected with
scrapie?

Exclusive from New Scientist magazine

Four years ago, Terry Singeltary watched his
mother die horribly from a degenerative brain disease.................

full text url follows
By Debora MacKenzie

Suspect Symptoms

http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/bse/suspectsymptoms.jsp

if url dead, go here for 'SUSPECT SYMPTOMS'

you can access article here also;

http://www.organicconsumers.org/meat/scrapiecjd.cfm

http://www.vegancowboy.org/TSS-SuspectSymptoms.html

Then follow up with PNAS studies from which
new scientist article written from;

Published online before print March 20, 2001
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.041490898

Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and
comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for human health
Corinne Ida Lasmézas*, [dagger] , Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*,
Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp [Dagger
] , Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce [||] , Dominique
Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys*


Edited by D. Carleton Gajdusek, Centre National de la Recherche
Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, and approved December 7, 2000
(received for review October 16, 2000)

Abstract

There is substantial scientific evidence to support the notion that
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has contaminated human beings,
causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This disease has
raised concerns about the possibility of an iatrogenic secondary
transmission to humans, because the biological properties of the
primate-adapted BSE agent are unknown. We show that (i) BSE can be
transmitted from primate to primate by intravenous route in 25 months,
and (ii) an iatrogenic transmission of vCJD to humans could be readily
recognized pathologically, whether it occurs by the central or
peripheral route. Strain typing in mice demonstrates that the BSE agent
adapts to macaques in the same way as it does to humans and confirms
that the BSE agent is responsible for vCJD not only in the United
Kingdom but also in France. The agent responsible for French iatrogenic
growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD
but is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep
scrapie isolate. These data will be key in identifying the origin of
human cases of prion disease, including accidental vCJD transmission,
and could provide bases for vCJD risk assessment.

Introduction

The recognition of a variant of the human transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy (TSE) Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) in the U.K. in
1996 raised the major concern that it would correspond to human
infection with the agent responsible for bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE; ref. 1). Transmission of BSE to macaques provided
the first experimental evidence as it produced a disease close to vCJD
in humans (2). Strain typing in inbred mice (consisting of measuring the
incubation period and establishing lesion profiles corresponding to the
strain-specific distribution of brain vacuolation) allows reliable
identification of TSE strains (3). This method, together with
biochemical methods, has revealed a single phenotype for the agents of
BSE and the British cases of vCJD (4-6). Mice expressing only the bovine
prion protein (PrP) were highly susceptible to vCJD and BSE, which
induced the same disease (7). Thus, it is now well established that BSE
has caused vCJD, probably by alimentary contamination. In this respect,
the finding of abnormal PrP labeling in the gastrointestinal tract and
lymphatic tissues of orally BSE-contaminated lemurs shows that the BSE
agent can infect primates by the oral route (8). About 1 million
contaminated cattle may have entered the human food chain, and the
future number of vCJD cases could range from 63 to 136,000 depending on
the incubation period of BSE in humans (9). Unlike sporadic CJD (sCJD)
and iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) linked to the administration of contaminated
growth hormone extracted from human hypophyses, in vCJD, the infectious
agent seems to be widely distributed in lymphoid organs, as pathological
PrP (PrPres) can be detected in tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, and
appendix even in the preclinical phase of the disease (10, 11). This
raises a public health issue with regard to the risk of iatrogenic
transmission of vCJD through surgical instruments, grafts, blood
transfusion, or parenteral administration of biological products of
human origin. However, this risk is difficult to assess, because it
largely depends on factors such as the virulence of the BSE agent
adapted to primates and the efficiency of secondary transmission to
humans by a peripheral route such as the i.v. one. A further issue is
whether vCJD accidentally acquired from humans would be recognized. The
latter poses the question of a phenotypic variation of the BSE agent
after successive transmissions in humans: does it retain its strain
characteristics, and does it induce a pathology similar to that observed
in the previous host? A 9-year history of transmission of BSE to
primates and mice enables us today to clarify a number of these
important points.

Although BSE has mainly affected the U.K., two definite cases and one
probable case of vCJD have now been reported in France in people who
have never resided in the U.K. (12, 13). We strain-typed the first of
these cases to establish its origin. Strain typing in C57BL/6 mice of
BSE, French, and British vCJD was compared with that of BSE passaged in
nonhuman primates, thus allowing us to study the effect of serial
passages in primates. Comparisons were also made with French cases of
sCJD and iCJD and two strains of scrapie (one of French and one of U.S.
origin). Our findings provide experimental demonstration that the same
agent, namely that responsible for the cattle disease BSE, has caused
vCJD both in France and in the U.K., in line with biochemical data and
with the fact that, until 1996, about 10% of the beef consumed in France
was imported from the U.K. We found that the BSE agent in nonhuman
primates is similar to that causing vCJD in humans and tends to evolve
rapidly toward a primate-adapted variant. Furthermore, we showed that
the strain responsible for iCJD is closely related to that of one
patient with sCJD, and, more unexpectedly, that these agents were
similar to the French scrapie strain studied (but different from the
U.S. scrapie strain). This finding requires a cautious interpretation
for several reasons, not least because of the inevitably limited number
of TSE strains that can be studied by such a cumbersome method as strain
typing. Nonetheless, it also prompts reconsideration of the possibility
that, in some instances, sheep and human TSEs can share a common origin.

snip...

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/041490898v1

STATEMENT OF DR HELEN GRANT MD FRCP
ISSUED 13/05/1999

BSE INQUIRY

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s410.pdf
http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s410x.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/evidence/ws/ws8.htm

CWD to CJD in humans (why not?), as easy as BSE/Scrapie;

The EMBO Journal, Vol. 19, No. 17 pp. 4425-4430, 2000
© European Molecular Biology Organization

Evidence of a molecular barrier limiting
susceptibility of humans, cattle and sheep to
chronic wasting disease

G.J. Raymond1, A. Bossers2, L.D. Raymond1, K.I. O?Rourke3,
L.E. McHolland4, P.K. Bryant III4, M.W. Miller5, E.S. Williams6, M.
Smits2
and B. Caughey1,7

1NIAID/NIH Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT 59840,
3USDA/ARS/ADRU, Pullman, WA 99164-7030, 4USDA/ARS/ABADRL,
Laramie, WY 82071, 5Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research
Center, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, 6Department of Veterinary Sciences,
University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA and 2ID-Lelystad,
Institute for Animal Science and Health, Lelystad, The Netherlands
7Corresponding author e-mail: bcaughey@nih.gov Received June 7, 2000;
revised July 3, 2000; accepted July 5, 2000.

Abstract

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible
spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of deer and elk,
and little is known about its transmissibility to other
species. An important factor controlling
interspecies TSE susceptibility is prion protein (PrP)
homology between the source and recipient
species/genotypes. Furthermore, the efficiency with which
the protease-resistant PrP (PrP-res) of one
species induces the in vitro conversion of the normal PrP
(PrP-sen) of another species to the
protease-resistant state correlates with the cross-species
transmissibility of TSE agents. Here we
show that the CWD-associated PrP-res (PrPCWD) of cervids
readily induces the conversion of recombinant cervid PrP-sen
molecules to the protease-resistant state in accordance
with the known transmissibility of CWD between cervids. In contrast,
PrPCWD-induced conversions of human and bovine PrP-sen were
much less efficient, and conversion of ovine PrP-sen was
intermediate. These results demonstrate a barrier at the
molecular level that should limit the susceptibility of these non-cervid
species to CWD.

snip...

Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD
passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present
results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as
limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep
scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep
scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has caused variant
CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to
date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the
presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity,
the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with
cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient
conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since
humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent
to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans
(as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been
recommended for other animal TSEs.

snip...

http://www.emboj.org/current.shtml

Scrapie to Humans?

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov:80/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=3915057&dopt=Abstract

TSS

Yves Le Pape wrote:

> ######## Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########
>
>>From INRA, France : "ESB au quotidien"
>
> --------------------
>
> USA
>
>
> UPI Farming Today
> By Gregory Tejeda
> United Press International
>>From the Business & Economics Desk
> Published 11/6/2002
> Animal Diseases:Sheep farmers in Ohio are suffering from their highest
number of confirmed cases of scrapie.The Agriculture Department reported
that Ohio had 38 confirmed cases of the disease between Oct. 1, 2001, and
July 31, 2002, with the infected sheep confined to 13 flocks. That is out
of 142,000 head of sheep across the state.Ohio State University researchers
are trying to develop a test to detect scrapie and other transmissible
spongiform encephalopathies, including mad cow disease in cattle,
chronic wasting disease in elk and deer, all using scrapie as a model.

>
> http://www.upi.com/view.cfm?StoryID=20021105-063955-2411r
>
>
>
> AG ANSWERS (Purdue)

> Written November 5, 2002

> Scrapie leaves lambs feeling less than sheepish

> Counting sheep is supposed to help us get a good night's sleep. But
Ohio sheep farmers whose flocks have been infected with scrapie know
that sweet dreams can easily turn into nightmares.

>
> http://www.agriculture.purdue.edu/aganswers/2002/11-05_Lambs_Feel_Sheepish.html
>
>

> Yves Le Pape
> ylepape@aol.com
>
>
>
> ########### http://mailhost.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/warc/bse-l.html ############
>
>
>

########### http://mailhost.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/warc/bse-l.html ############





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