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From: TSS ()
Subject: How many NHS patients as having received blood from a donor who later developed vCJD were people with haemophilia
Date: December 21, 2006 at 9:13 am PST

Health: vCJD
Lord Morris of Manchester asked Her Majesty’s Government:

How many NHS patients identified by the National Blood Service as having received blood from a donor who later developed vCJD were people with haemophilia. [HL750]

19 Dec 2006 : Column WA291

The Minister of State, Department of Health (Lord Warner): No patient with haemophilia or other bleeding disorders have been identified as having received blood from a blood donor who subsequently developed vCJD, nor have there been any reported cases of vCJD associated with receipt of plasma products.

However, all haemophilia patients who received plasma products between 1980 and 2001 sourced from UK donor plasma have been designated as “at risk of vCJD for public purposes”. All plasma products are now sourced from non-UK plasma. The United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors’ Organisation is collecting data that will provide an estimate of the number of haemophilia patients who have been exposed to plasma products which may be implicated with vCJD.

Lord Morris of Manchester asked Her Majesty’s Government:

What is their response to the findings of Professor John Collinge in the December 2006 edition of the Lancet on the transmission by infected blood of variant CJD; and what action they are planning to take. [HL751]

Lord Warner: The Lancet article refers to the third known case of vCJD transmission via blood transfusion from a vCJD-infected donor. This case was originally notified to the department in January 2006 and announced by the Health Protection Agency in a press release on 9 February 2006, a copy of which has been placed in the Library.

There are 24 living patients in a group of people who had received blood components from donors subsequently known to have developed vCJD. They were all notified in 2005 or earlier, through their GPs, of their risk status and have been provided with information and support. The Health Protection Agency contacted the GPs earlier in the year to notify them of this third case and the agency has ensured that the GPs are fully informed and briefed about the subsequent Lancet publication.

The department has implemented a series of measures to reduce the risk of vCJD being transmitted through the blood supply. Shortly after vCJD was first identified in 1996, the possibility of human-to-human transmission through blood was considered, and the department implemented precautionary measures to reduce what was, at that time, a theoretical risk. These measures have been strengthened since evidence of transmission via blood began to emerge from animal studies, and following the first case of transfusion-associated transmission in humans, reported in December 2003. An important additional step, introduced in March 2004, was to exclude from blood donation those people who had themselves received a blood transfusion since January 1980. Other precautionary measures include:

from December 1997, blood components, plasma products or tissues obtained from any individual who later develops vCJD, were withdrawn/recalled;

19 Dec 2006 : Column WA292

in July 1998, it was announced that plasma for the manufacture of blood products, such as clotting factors, would be obtained from non-UK sources;from November 1999, white blood cells, which may carry a significant risk of transmitting vCJD, were removed from all blood used for transfusion;in August 2002, it was announced that fresh frozen plasma for treating babies and young children born on or after 1 January 1996 would be obtained from the USA; in July 2004, the exclusion criteria for blood donation were extended to include previously transfused platelet donors, and donors who were unsure if they had previously had a blood transfusion;in September 2004, the department announced further precautionary measures for patients who had received certain batches of plasma products;in July 2005, the use of USA-sourced fresh frozen plasma was extended to all children up to the age of 16;in July 2005, the department announced further precautionary measures for those patients who donated blood to three people who later developed vCJD.
The department continues to keep all the evidence in relation to transmission of vCJD by blood under close review.

Date: Wed, 6 Sep 2000 18:20:09 -0800
From: tom
Reply-To: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
References: 1

######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

Just when I was thinking the Internet had reached a terminal condition of
shallow pages and broken links, some young people come along and invent a
really effective Internet search engine: This
works quite well to search the entire site (or find
393 web sites such as GenBank that link to it, or 936 sites that cite it in
text) back to 1996 as well as the BSE Inquiry

Thus for louping ill (unnecessary cites suppressed): Witness Statements 537 -

29.Pituitary FSH from pigs has been used in the USA prior to its use in the
UK and much more extensively there and Canada....
30.Thousands of embryos were exported from this country to the USA prior to
the ban being imposed...
42. No cow pituitaries were used in the preparation of FSH [follicular
stimulating hormone] products compared with the case of louping ill vaccine
for scrapie.

In the 1930's: 18,000 UK sheep were inoculated against louping ill, a brain
inflammatory illness spread by ticks. Despite
formalin-treatment of the inoculated agent, the procedure gave rise
to 1,500 cases of scrapie. Louping is a Scottish word for
fleeing or leaping, related to loping. In humans, louping ill is
called Russian spring-summer encephalitis, a meningo-encephalitis
with muscular tremors and spasms followed by varying degrees of
paralysis.... [John Lanchester 2 Dec 96 New Yorker]

In what the story calls a grand historical irony, this landmark series of
experiments was being confirmed at the same time in England as a result of
an outbreak of scrapie in several hundred sheep that had been immunized
against louping ill with a vaccine prepared from tissue from the brain,
spinal cord, and spleen of sheep that were belatedly discovered to have
been exposed to natural scrapie infection.[6.Gordon WS. Advances in
veterinary research. Vet Rec 1946; 58: 516-520] The transmissible nature
of the scrapie agent was thus established beyond any doubt. [P Brown, 1755
and All That: A Historical Primer of TSE.

We need to look at the full text of the article and its cites to see how
they actually made the vaccine, whether they exported vaccine-infected
sheep to Canada and the US, and what became of the vaccinated flocks.
Perhaps there is still sample available, Moredun Institute is still around.

Gordon WS. Advances in veterinary research. Vet Rec 1946; 58: 516-520 (not
covered by Medline)
Gordon, Bronlee and Wilson 1939 [full cite is available only in a letter
we don't have)

Terry was reading Draft Factual Account 17

236. Mrs Alderman replied on 3 June 1988, listing products
containing bovine insulin and noting there were
two rabies vaccines listed but the species used in manufacture
was not shown.[282]
237. On 6 June 1988 Mr Lawrence wrote to Sir Richard Southwood and
enclosed some brief answers to the
questions that had been tabled at the meeting on 19 May.[283] In
relation to Q6, which asked ŒWhat is
meat and other material from scrapie infected sheep used for -
does it include pet food and material for
biological products?¹ Part of the answer stated: ...

> There has been one instance of inadvertant [sic] transmission of the
>scrapie agent to sheep through louping ill vaccine (Gordon, Bronlee and
>Wilson 1939). One of the three batches of vaccine made in 1935 at the
>Moredun Institute contained the scrapie agent resulting in 7% of the
>recipients of the 18, 000 doses in the batch developing scrapie. This
>vaccine was made from formalin-inactivated sheep brain, and brought to
>the attention of research workers that formalin, at a concentration of
>0.35% for at least 3 months, which inactivated conventional viruses, did
>not totally inactivate the scrapie agent.
>4. Questions we might want to have answered are:
>the highest risk would be from parenterals prepared from brain (eg
>rabies vaccine). Any species in which transmissible spongiform
>encephalopathies have been described would be suspect (“natural”
>infections in sheep, goats, cattle, deer, mink, but can be transmitted
>to hamster, mouse, guinea-pig etc). Are sterilisation processes
>adequate for the most resistant strain of scrapie agent or for CJD
>agent? Should companies be asked to include investigation for inclusion
>of scrapie agent (eg mouse innoculation [sic]) in at least some batches?
>If BSE behaves like scrapie, then we might expect other nervous tissue,
>spleen, lymph nodes and placenta to be contaminated. Infection has been
>described in other tissues too, eg gut wall, and we can not [sic] be
>sure blood is free. Do we know what bovine materials are used in which
>products, both as the active ingredient and in production? Bovine active
>ingredients in human products include insulin, vasopressin, bone, immune
>globulins, fibrin, dermal collagen, albumin. Bovine serum albumin and
>fetal calf serum must be used in preparation of very many products. For
>each of these products would any “BSE agent” be destroyed or eliminated
>in processing? If not, and the product is administered parenterally or
>topically into an open wound, might there be a risk? [For oral
>products, there would only be a trivially increased load on top of that
>taken in food in omnivores/carnivores including man. But for some
>herbivores, this might allow the agent to be introduced into yet another
>Medicines and medical devises;

2 known incidents of iatrogenic scrapie
Thu, 7 Sep 2000 09:51:14 -0800
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

######### Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy #########

One really has to wonder what went on in veterinary products produced
during the peak BSE years. At this point, there are only 2 known
incidents, both involving sheep brain vaccines.

I found a better source for needed references for iatrogenic scrapie in a
nice review by Ray Bradley at
Disclosure has been meagre on the 1998 vaccine incident in Italy. Note 3
of the 5 references are totally off Medline and the other 2 fail to have
abstracts or links, due to journal ineptness, burial in conference
proceedings, and age of article.

If anyone has the first 3, I would appreciate a fax 542-484-0669 US.


GORDON , W.S., 1959. Scrapie panel. In: Proceedings of 63rd Annual Meeting
of the US Livestock Sanitary Association, 63, 286-294. [no medline record]

GORDON, W.S., 1946. Advances in Veterinary Research: Louping ill,
tick-borne fever and scrapie. Veterinary Record, 58, 516-525. [no medline

GORDON , W.S., BROWNLEE, A.& WILSON, D.R., 1939. Studies in louping-ill,
tick-borne fever and scrapie. 3rd International Congress for microbiology,
362-363. [no medline record]


Natural occurrence of scrapie in goats in Italy. Veterinary Record, 143,
452-453. [title only]

1999. Epidemic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep and goats
in Italy. Lancet, 353, 560-561. [title only]

Ray Bradley
Private BSE Consultant
Veterinary Laboratories Agency, United Kingdom

There have been two reported incidents of iatrogenic disease in animals,
both involving scrapie. One was in Great Britain (Gordon, Brownlee and
Wilson, 1939, Gordon 1946, 1959) the other in Italy (Capucchio et al, 1998,
Agrimi et al, 1999). Both resulted from infection being
introduced into vaccines, louping ill vaccine in Great Britain, Mycoplasma
agalactiae vaccine in Italy. Each of these vaccines was prepared from
tissues that included sheep brain. In both episodes it seems most likely
that natural scrapie infection was present unknowingly in some brains used
for the purpose. Once prepared and having passed all the conventional
vaccine tests large numbers of sheep in Great Britain, and goats and some
in Italy were inoculated. After the necessary incubation period large
numbers (> 1,000 in each case) of inoculated animals came down with scrapie.
In the meantime some inoculated clinically healthy goats and sheep may have
entered food and feed chains or have been used for other purposes. In the
British outbreak there appears to have been no consequence for humans who
may have consumed infected sheep. It is too early to say what may be the
consequences in Italy but measures have been taken to reduce any risk there
may have been. .........end

Louping-ill vaccine documents from November 23rd, 1946 FULL TEXT

516 No 47. Vol. 58
November 23rd, 1946



The annual Congress, 1946, was held at the Royal Veterinary College,
Royal College Street, London, N.W.I. from September 22nd to September

Opening Meeting

[skip to scrapie vaccine issue...tss]

Papers Presented to Congress


although 176 products do _not_ conform to the CSM/VPC

8. The Secretary of State has a number of licences. We understand that
the inactivated polio vaccine is no longer being used. There is a stock
of smallpox vaccine. We have not been able to determine the source
material. (Made in sheep very unlikely to contain bovine ingredients).

more on the 1968 medicine act, they forgot to follow

Draft cover letter to product licence holders (considered by Human and Vet Medicines including deer)

2.3.Iatrogenic exposure

Iatrogenic exposure of scrapie has probably occurred twice. The first report determined that

the vehicle was a louping ill vaccine prepared from sheep tissues and this infected a large

number of sheep sheep (Gordon, 1946, Greig, 1950). The second was more recent and in this

case a vaccine against Mycoplasma agalactiae prepared from sheep tissues was incriminated

(Agrimi et al 1999, Capucchio, 1998) but not all outbreaks could be linked to the use of the

vaccine. In this episode goats were predominantly affected10.

5.3.3 The greatest risk, in theory, would be from parenteral injection of material derived from bovine brain or lymphoid tissue. Medicinal products for injection or surgical implantation which are prepared from bovine tissues, or which utilise bovine serum albumin or similar agents in their manufacture, might also be capable of transmitting infectious agents. All medicinal products are licensed under the Medicines Act by the Licensing Authority following guidance, for example from the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), the Committee on Dental and Surgical Materials (CDSM) and their subcommittees. The Licensing Authority have been alerted to potential concern about BSE in medicinal products and will ensure that scrutiny of source materials and manufacturing processes now takes account of BSE agent.

The documents below were provided by Terry S. Singeltary Sr on 8 May 2000. They are optically character read (scanned into computer) and so may contain typos and unreadable parts.


Mr Cunningham CMP3 From: D O Hagger MBI
Dr Salisbury MED/IMCD3
Mr Burton PD/STB/PG1B B/17/2 Date: 15.02.1989
Mr Dudley PD/AD4


1. The purpose of this minute is to alert you to recent developments on
BSE as they affect medicines and to invite representatives to a meeting
in Market Towers on 22 February 1989.

2. The report of the Working Party on Bovine Spongiform
Encephalopathy (BSE) was submitted by the CMO to the Secretary of State
for Health and Minister for Agriculturer on 9 February.

3. The summary at the end of the report records, inter alia: 'we have
drawn the attention of the Licensing Authority to the potential of
transfer of BSE agent in human and veterinary medicinal products. In
paragraph 7 of his submission (Annex A), the CMO notes:

"I am also putting work urgently in hand to satisfy myself that
everything possible has been done to ensure .... that transfer of the
BBE agent in human and veterinary medicinal products does not occur."

4. The Veterinary products Committee meets on 16 February and The
committee on Safety of Medicines on 23 February when each will be
considering a draft of some joint guidelines for manufacturers of
medicinal products which use bovine material as an ingredient or an
intermediate in the manufacturing process (Annex B).....

6. Although a wide range of medicines may be implicated - and the
present proposal is to write to companies for more information - an
"instant" telephone survey of manufacturer of vaccines used for children
has already been undertaken in response to a request from Dr Harris. The
results are in Dr Adams' minute of 14 February (Annex C) - the proviso
in his second paragraph, last sentence should be noted.

89/02.15/11.2 MF580439/1 0584

1. I attach a list of questions on BSE and medicines compiled with the
aim of providing question and answer briefing to DH and MAFF Ministers
upon publication of the Southwood Report. I have suggested names of
those who may be able to provide answers.
All recipients are invited to consider which if any important areas have
been missed. Also attached is copy QA briefing being proposed by MAFF. I
understand MAFF have produced General QA briefing on the reports as a

MF580439/1 0585 Question

1. Which medicines are affected? (person to provide reply) Dr. Jefferys

2. Are the risks greater with some medicines than others? Dr. Jefferys

3. Why are medicines affected? Dr. Jefferys

4. Are some affected products available over the counter from pharmacies or shops? Dr. Purves

5. Are only UK products at risk? Dr. Jefferys

6. Are existing stocks safe? Dr. Jefferys

7. Are pre 1980 stocks available? Mr. Burton

8. Are these alternatives to the use of bovine material? Dr. Purves

9. Why can't we throw away suspect stock and import or manufacture safe medicines? Dr. Jefferys

10. Which patients are at risk? Dr. Jefferys

11. Are some patients particularly vulnerable? Dr Jefferys

12. What risks exist to those who have already used these medicines? Dr. Jefferys

13. HOW might patients be affected? Dr. Jefferys

14. Can BSE be transmitted to patients by medicines? Dr. Jefferys

15. How long will it be before risks are quantified? Dr. Jefferys

100 89/02.17/10.2 MF580439/1 0586

16. What research is going on to find out if medicines can transmit this disease and if any
patients have been affected? Dr Jefferys

17. Could recent cases of Creuuzfeld Jacob Disease have been caused by transmission of BSE through medicines? Dr. Jefferys

18. What action is the Licensing Authority taking to ensure proper scrutinising of source materials and manufacturing processes? Dr. Jefferys/Dr. Purves

19. Are the guidelines practical? Dr. Jefferys/Dr. Purves

20. Will the guidelines remove the risk? Dr. Jefferys

21. How will the guidelines be enforced? Dr. Jefferys/Dr. Purves

22. How soon will they come into force? Dr. Jefferys

23. Will the guidelines be published? Mr. Hagger

24. What is being done to reassure patients, parents etc? Mr. Hagger/Dr. Salisbury

25. What advice is being given to doctors, pharmacists etc? Mr. Hagger

26. What advice is the Government giving about its vaccination programme? Dr. Salisbury

27. Is the vaccination programme put at risk because of BSE? Dr. Salisbury


Q. Will government act on this?

A. Yes - thymus is not used in preparation of baby foods but it is
contacting all manufacturers to seek their urgent views on use of
kidneys and liver from ruminants. Will consider any necessary measures
in the light of their response.


Q. Can medicines spread BSE to other cattle/animals?

A. The report describes any risks as remote.

Q. How can risks be avoided?

A. In liaison with the DOH the Veterinary Products Committee is
examining guidelines for the veterinary pharmaceutical industry
which will be issued shortly.

Q. What will Guidelines say?

A. In essence they call for non-bovine sources to be used if possible,
including synthetic material of biotechnological origin. Where this is
not possible the industry should look for sources which are free of BSE
and which are collected in a manner which avoids risk of contamination
by the BSE agent.

89/02.17/10.4 MF580439/1 0588

A. Bovine source material is used in [garbled, cannot read...TSS] and some other medicines.

Q. How many medicines are involved?

A. Computer records show that about 300 of the 3,050 veterinary
medicines licensed in the U.K. are manufactured directly from bovine
source material. However, other medicines may be produced from
bovine sources and a letter is going to all license holders so that a
comprehensive list can be drawn up.

89/06.19/8.1 BSE3/1 0191 Hr J Maslin (MAFF) Ref: Maslin3g

From: Dr H Pickles Med SEB/B Date: 3 July 1989


I was interested to see the list of by-products sent to the HSE. Those
of particular concern included:

* small intestines: sutures (I thought the source was ovine but you are
checking this)

* spinal cord: pharmaceuticals

* thymus: pharmaceuticals

Are you able to give me more information on which UK manufacturers use
these materials? Our proposed ban on bovine offal for human consumption
would not affect these uses, I assume.

Id No. 1934/RD/1 89/08.10/6.1 117A

HELD ON 21 AUGUST 1989 AT 2;15 IN ROOM 720
Miss M Duncan (Chairman)
Mr W Burton
Dr E Hoxey
Mrs J Dhell
Ms K Turner
Dr S Whittle
Mr N Weatherhead
5. The MCA had sent 2700 questionnaires out, 1,124 had made valid
returns; of these 122 use animal material of some kind and there are 582
products involved.
6. The MCA/BSE working group will meet on 6th September. Their
aim is to review responses from professional officers in MCA who have
suggested seven categories of importance (with 1 being the most
important} for medical products:

ID 2267/NRE/1 89/08.21/10.1

1. Products with Bovine brain/lymph tissue administered by injection.

2. Products with bovine tissue other than brain/lymph administered by

3. Tissue implants/open wound dressing/surgical materials/dental and
ophthlamic products with bovine ingredients.

4. Products with bovine ingredients administered topically.

5. Products with bovine ingredients administered orally.

6. Products with other animal/fish/insect/bird ingredients administered
by injection/topically/oral routes.

7. Products with ingredients derived from animal material by chemical
processing (eg stearic acid, gelatine, lanolin ext.

The BSE working group will decide which of these are important, and
should be examined more closely, and which categories can be eliminated.

The responses by the companies were presented by Ms Turner and were
categorised by MCA standards, the products that were discussed were all
low volume usage products eg sutures, heart valves.

8. As the responses included some materials of human origin it
was decided that more information should be sought about CJD. There had
been 2 recent deaths reported associated with human growth hormone.
These were being investigated.

9. Re-editing of the Paper on "Incubation of Scrapie-like Agents"

It was suggested that the document could be sent out to companies with
the non-standard sterilization Document. The document could have severe
implications on the companies whose products have a high risk factor as
decided by the MCA working group....

11. The Need for a list of High Priority Implantables The commitee decided that no list is
necessary as all implantables, including ones from a human source are of high priority. Concern was
shown over Killingbeck who use human material but had not yet responded.
The company will be chased for a response. Concern was shown over the fact that there may be other scrapie-like
organisms in other animals and further enquiries should be made.

2334q/RD/4 89/08.21/10.7


Glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, and ethylene oxide are used in the
sterilization of these devices.

However, glutaraldehyde 4,10,12,19 formaldehyde 5,10,11,13,19 and
ethylene oxide 19,23 are all reported to be ineffective methods for
sterilization of material infected with the agents of CJD or scrapie.

Previous advice and research using the agents of CJD and scrapie, has
concentrated on the decontamination of equipment; protection of health
care workers from contaminated human material; human growth hormone; and
dura mater. The methods developed may not be directly applicable or
transferable to material of bovine origin for use in human implantation.

2334q/RD/7 89/08.21/10.10 BSE11/2 020 SC1337

Richmood House 79 Whitehall, London SW1A 2NS
Telephone 01-210-3000
From the Chief Medical Officer
Sir Donald Acheson KBE DM DSc FRCP FFCM FFOM

Mr K C Meldrum
Chief Veterinary Officer
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
Government Buildings
Hook Rise South

3 January 1990

Dear Mr. Meldrum,


You will recall that we have previously discussed the potential risks of
BSE occurring in other Countries as a result of the continuing export
from the UK of meat and bone that may be contaminated by scrapie or
possibly BSE.

I remain concerned that we are not being consistent in our attempts to
contain the risks of BSE. Having banned the feeding of meat and bone
meal to ruminants in 1988, we should take steps to prevent these UK
products being fed to ruminants in other countries. This could be
achieved either through a ban on the export of meat and bone meal, or at
least by the proper labelling of these products to make it absolutely
clear they should not be fed to ruminants. Unless some such action is
taken the difficult problems we have faced with BSE may well occur in
other countries who import UK meat and bone meal. Surely it is short
sighted for us to risk being seen in future as having been responsible
for the introduction of BSE to the food chain in other countries.

I would be very interested to hear how you feel this gap in the present
prcautionary measures to eliminate BSE should be closed. We should be
aiming at the global elimination of this new bovine disease. The export
of our meat and bone meal is a continuing risk to other countries.

Sincerely Donald Acheson

Did the US import fetal calf serum and vaccines from BSE-affected countries?
3002.10.0040: FETAL BOVINE SERUM (FBS)
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 ---> <--- 1998 YTD --->
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value
WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 2,727 233 131,486 8,502
Australia . . . . . . . . --- --- 19,637 2,623
Austria . . . . . . . . . --- --- 2,400 191
Belgium . . . . . . . . . --- --- 17 32
Canada . . . . . . . . . 900 110 30,983 3,220
Costa Rica . . . . . . . 500 20 4,677 169
Federal Rep. of Germany --- --- 105 21
Finland . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9 83
France . . . . . . . . . --- --- 73 7
Guatemala . . . . . . . . --- --- 719 42
Honduras . . . . . . . . --- --- 1,108 88
Israel . . . . . . . . . --- --- 24 165
Netherlands . . . . . . . --- --- 1 5
New Zealand . . . . . . . 26 5 65,953 913
Panama . . . . . . . . . --- --- 1,195 64
Switzerland . . . . . . . 971 8 1,078 23
United Kingdom . . . . . 329 82 743 756
Uruguay . . . . . . . . . --- --- 2,764 98
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 ---> <--- 1998 YTD --->
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value
WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 25,702 26,150 550,258 378,735
Austria . . . . . . . . . --- --- 45 225
Belgium . . . . . . . . . 14,311 12,029 248,041 199,036
Canada . . . . . . . . . 1,109 1,527 15,798 16,305
Denmark . . . . . . . . . 80 234 246 682
Federal Rep. of Germany 1,064 4,073 12,001 6,329
France . . . . . . . . . 3,902 4,859 87,879 92,845
Ireland . . . . . . . . . --- --- 120 478
Italy . . . . . . . . . . --- --- 2,359 81
Japan . . . . . . . . . . 445 1,903 11,350 11,298
Netherlands . . . . . . . --- --- 94 6
Republic Of South Africa --- --- 2 1
Spain . . . . . . . . . . --- --- 60 30
Switzerland . . . . . . . 716 353 9,303 4,271
United Kingdom . . . . . 4,075 1,172 162,960 47,148
U.S. Imports for Consumption: December 1998 and 1998 Year-to-Date
(Customs Value, in Thousands of Dollars)
(Units of Quantity: Kilograms)

<--- Dec 1998 ---> <--- 1998 YTD --->
Country Quantity Value Quantity Value
WORLD TOTAL . . . . . . . 6,528 237 87,149 2,715
Canada . . . . . . . . . --- --- 2,637 305
Federal Rep. of Germany --- --- 104 5
Netherlands . . . . . . . 138 64 472 192
New Zealand . . . . . . . 6,390 173 83,882 1,895
United Kingdom . . . . . --- --- 54 318

Procedures Manual

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

Ongoing Surveillance Plan

Ongoing Surveillance Plan Implementation
July 20, 2006


Personal Safety

If BSE is transmissible to humans in the occupational setting, the most likely routes would be through contact with infective tissues through wounds or open lesions on the skin, contact with mucous membranes (eyes and mouth), or exceptionally, by swallowing. .....snip...end

SO, looks like to me the most likely route of transmission of BSE to humans would be through inoculation i.e.

> the most likely routes would be through contact with infective tissues through wounds or open lesions on the skin,

IF you look at all the successful transmission studies in the lab with TSE, inoculations was the most successful route.

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

P.O. Box 42

Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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