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From: TSS ()
Subject: Navy: Human blood substitute urgently needed on battlefield
Date: December 16, 2006 at 8:09 am PST

Published on: Friday, December 15, 2006
Navy: Human blood substitute urgently needed on battlefield

Wire Services

WASHINGTON (AP) - A blood substitute the military wants to test on civilian trauma victims is urgently needed to save lives on the battlefield in places like Iraq, a Navy official told federal advisers Thursday.

The Navy wants to test the product, derived from cow blood, on roughly 1,100 trauma victims in emergency situations. It proposes doing so without obtaining the customary informed consent of patients in advance.

The substitute blood, called Hemopure, would be given on the way to the hospital to patients ages 18 to 69 who have lost dangerous amounts of blood. It would substitute for the saline fluids typically given in ambulances when donated blood is unavailable for transfusion.

In Iraq, 68 percent of the U.S. troops who die of trauma before reaching a hospital suffer severe bleeding as part of their injuries, the Navy's deputy surgeon general, Rear Adm. John Mateczun, told a panel of federal health advisers. An available blood substitute could save many of those lives, he added.

"We urgently need an oxygen-carrying capability that does not require refrigeration, is universally compatible and can be readily administered in a field setting," Mateczun said in remarks to a Food and Drug Administration panel convened to consider whether the agency should lift a hold on the experiment. The FDA isn't required to follow the recommendations of its advisory committees, but usually does.

Three times since June 2005, the FDA has blocked Hemopure trials from starting. Each time, it has cited safety concerns. Hemopure's manufacturer, Biopure Corp., based in Cambridge, Mass., contends its benefits outweigh its risks, as does the Navy.

The Naval Medical Research Center, which is overseeing the government-funded study, has since revised its design for the experiment. It now says the product won't be given to patients 70 or older, and it's limiting the amount of Hemopure that would be given to trauma victims. Many of them are expected to be young men under the influence of alcohol. The battlefield is too uncontrolled to do the research, an FDA spokeswoman said.

The proposed changes have moved the FDA closer to giving its go-ahead to the experiment, which is required for the product to eventually win approval, according to agency review documents. Still, the proposed experiment came under sharp questioning Thursday by agency staff, who said it was hard to determine whether the trial's benefits outweighed its risks, the agency spokeswoman said.

One critic said the proposed trial is unethical and the FDA's previous reasons for blocking the trial remain valid.

"Human subjects would be exposed to an unreasonable and significant risk," said Dr. Sidney Wolfe of the watchdog group Public Citizen. Thursday's meeting originally was to have been held in secret in July but the FDA postponed it at the last minute after Public Citizen sued.

Researchers say blood substitutes can both counter a dangerous drop in blood pressure in bleeding victims and carry oxygen from the lungs to the body. Saline fluids can do the former but not the latter. While blood can do both, it has its own limitations. Unlike blood, blood substitutes theoretically could be stored for years and then used without concern for infection or blood type.

The development and testing of experimental blood substitutes has been fraught with controversy: Deerfield, Ill.-based Baxter International Inc. stopped research on one such product in 1998 when more than 20 patients given the substitute died.

A second company, Evanston, Ill.-based Northfield Laboratories Inc., began clinical trials in 2004 of another product, called Polyheme, giving it to trauma patients without their consent on the way to - and later, at - the hospital. Hemopure would be given only en route to the hospital.

On the Net:

Biopure Corp.:

Food and Drug Administration:

Volume 42 Issue 5 Page 513 - May 2002
Volume 42 Issue 5

Brain and buffy coat transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the primate Microcebus murinus
Nöelle Bons, Sylvain Lehmann, Nadine Mestre-Francès, Dominique Dormont, and Paul Brown
BACKGROUND: More than 100 cases of variant CJD resulting from infections with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have accumulated in the United Kingdom since 1995. Concern about the possibility of secondary transmissions via blood and blood components donated by infected individuals has prompted a variety of international donor deferral policies that will continue until laboratory and epidemiologic evidence provides a consensus about potential risk.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: BSE was passaged through macaque monkeys and then adapted to the prosimian microcebe (Microcebus murinus). Brain homogenate and buffy coat from an affected microcebe were separately inoculated intracerebrally into three healthy microcebes (two animals received brain and one received buffy coat).

RESULTS: All three inoculated microcebes became ill after incubation periods of 16 to 18 months. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunocytologic features were similar in each of the recipients.

CONCLUSION: Buffy coat from a symptomatic microcebe infected 17 months earlier with BSE contained the infectious agent. This observation represents the first documented transmission of BSE from the blood of an experimentally infected primate, which in view of rodent buffy coat infectivity precedents and the known host range of BSE is neither unexpected nor cause for alarm.


The Lancet 2006; 368:2061-2067



Clinical presentation and pre-mortem diagnosis of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob
disease associated with blood transfusion: a case report

Stephen J Wroe FRCP a b, Suvankar Pal MRCP a b, Durrenajaf Siddique MRCP a
b, Harpreet Hyare FRCR a b, Rebecca Macfarlane MRCS a b, Susan Joiner MSc b,
Jacqueline M Linehan BSc b, Sebastian Brandner MRCPath b, Jonathan DF
Wadsworth PhD b, Patricia Hewitt FRCPath c and Prof John Collinge FRS a b

Concerns have been raised that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
might be transmissible by blood transfusion. Two cases of prion infection in
a group of known recipients of transfusion from donors who subsequently
developed vCJD were identified post-mortem and reported in 2004. Another
patient from this at-risk group developed neurological signs and was
referred to the National Prion Clinic.

The patient was admitted for investigation and details of blood transfusion
history were obtained from the National Blood Service and Health Protection
Agency; after diagnosis of vCJD, the patient was enrolled into the MRC
PRION-1 trial. When the patient died, brain and tonsil tissue were obtained
at autopsy and assessed for the presence of disease-related PrP by
immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry.

A clinical diagnosis of probable vCJD was made; tonsil biopsy was not done.
The patient received experimental therapy with quinacrine, but deteriorated
and died after a clinical course typical of vCJD. Autopsy confirmed the
diagnosis and showed prion infection of the tonsils.

This case of transfusion-associated vCJD infection, identified ante-mortem,
is the third instance from a group of 23 known recipients who survived at
least 5 years after receiving a transfusion from donors who subsequently
developed vCJD. The risk to the remaining recipients of such tranfusions is
probably high, and these patients should be offered specialist follow-up and
investigation. Tonsil biopsy will allow early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis
in other iatrogenically exposed individuals at high risk, as in those with
primary infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions.


a. National Prion Clinic, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery,
Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
b. MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of
Neurology, University College London, London, UK
c. National Blood Service, London, UK

Correspondence to: Prof John Collinge

Published online before print March 20, 2001, 10.1073/pnas.041490898
PNAS | March 27, 2001 | vol. 98 | no. 7 | 4142-4147

Adaptation of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to primates and comparison with Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease: Implications for human health
Corinne Ida Lasmézas*,, Jean-Guy Fournier*, Virginie Nouvel*, Hermann Boe*, Domíníque Marcé*, François Lamoury*, Nicolas Kopp, Jean-Jacques Hauw§, James Ironside¶, Moira Bruce, Dominique Dormont*, and Jean-Philippe Deslys*
* Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Service de Neurovirologie, Direction des Sciences du Vivant/Département de Recherche Medicale, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées 60-68, Avenue du Général Leclerc, BP 6, 92 265 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex, France; Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, 59, Boulevard Pinel, 69003 Lyon, France; § Laboratoire de Neuropathologie, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 83, Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; ¶ Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom; and Institute for Animal Health, Neuropathogenesis Unit, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JF, United Kingdom

Edited by D. Carleton Gajdusek, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, and approved December 7, 2000 (received for review October 16, 2000)


There is substantial scientific evidence to support the notion that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has contaminated human beings, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). This disease has raised concerns about the possibility of an iatrogenic secondary transmission to humans, because the biological properties of the primate-adapted BSE agent are unknown. We show that (i) BSE can be transmitted from primate to primate by intravenous route in 25 months, and (ii) an iatrogenic transmission of vCJD to humans could be readily recognized pathologically, whether it occurs by the central or peripheral route. Strain typing in mice demonstrates that the BSE agent adapts to macaques in the same way as it does to humans and confirms that the BSE agent is responsible for vCJD not only in the United Kingdom but also in France. The agent responsible for French iatrogenic growth hormone-linked CJD taken as a control is very different from vCJD but is similar to that found in one case of sporadic CJD and one sheep scrapie isolate. These data will be key in identifying the origin of human cases of prion disease, including accidental vCJD transmission, and could provide bases for vCJD risk assessment.


On the Question of Sporadic

or Atypical Bovine SpongiformEncephalopathy and

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Paul Brown,* Lisa M. McShane,† Gianluigi Zanusso,‡ and Linda Detwiler§

Strategies to investigate the possible existence of sporadic

bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) require

systematic testing programs to identify cases in countries

considered to have little or no risk for orally acquired disease,

or to detect a stable occurrence of atypical cases in

countries in which orally acquired disease is disappearing.

To achieve 95% statistical confidence that the prevalence

of sporadic BSE is no greater than 1 per million (i.e., the

annual incidence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

[CJD] in humans) would require negative tests in 3 million

randomly selected older cattle. A link between BSE and

sporadic CJD has been suggested on the basis of laboratory

studies but is unsupported by epidemiologic observation.

Such a link might yet be established by the discovery

of a specific molecular marker or of particular combinations

of trends over time of typical and atypical BSE and various

subtypes of sporadic CJD, as their numbers are influenced

by a continuation of current public health measures that

exclude high-risk bovine tissues from the animal and

human food chains.


Sporadic CJD
The possibility that at least some cases of apparently sporadic CJD might be due to infection by sporadic cases of BSE cannot be dismissed outright. Screening programs needed to identify sporadic BSE have yet to be implemented, and we know from already extant testing programs that at least a proportion of infected animals have no symptoms and thus would never be identified in the absence of systematic testing. Thus, sporadic BSE (or for that matter, sporadic disease in any mammalian species) might be occurring on a regular basis at perhaps the same annual frequency as sporadic CJD in humans, that is, in the range of 1 case per million animals.

Whether humans might be more susceptible to atypical forms of BSE cannot be answered at this time. Experimentally transmitted BASE shows shorter incubation periods than BSE in at least 1 breed of cattle, bovinized transgenic mice, and Cynomolgus monkeys (12,13). In humanized transgenic mice, BASE transmitted, whereas typical BSE did not transmit (13). Paradoxically, the other major phenotype (H) showed an unusually long incubation period in bovinized transgenic mice (12).

The limited experimental evidence bearing on a possible relationship between BSE and sporadic CJD is difficult to interpret. The original atypical BASE strain of BSE had a molecular protein signature very similar to that of 1 subtype (type 2 M/V) of sporadic CJD in humans (5). In another study, a strain of typical BSE injected into humanized mice encoding valine at codon 129 showed a glycopattern indistinguishable from the same subtype of sporadic CJD (15). In a third study, the glycopatterns of both the H and L strains of atypical BSE evidently did not resemble any of the known sporadic CJD subtypes (12).

To these molecular biology observations can be added the epidemiologic data accumulated during the past 30 years. The hypothesis that at least some cases of apparently sporadic CJD are due to unrecognized BSE infections cannot be formally refuted, but if correct, we might expect by now to have some epidemiologic evidence linking BSE to at least 1 cluster of apparently sporadic cases of CJD. Although only a few clusters have been found (and still fewer published), every proposed cluster that has been investigated has failed to show any common exposure to bovines. For that matter, no common exposure has been shown to any environmental vehicles of infection, including the consumption of foodstuffs from bovine, ovine, and porcine sources, the 3 livestock species known to be susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Additional negative evidence comes from several large case-control studies in which no statistically significant dietary differences were observed between patients with sporadic CJD and controls (16,17).

On the other hand, the difficulty of establishing a link between BSE and CJD may be compounded by our ignorance of the infectious parameters of a sporadic form of BSE (e.g., host range, tissue distribution of infectivity, route of transmission, minimum infectious dose for humans, whether single or multiple). Presumably, these parameters would resemble those of variant CJD; that is, high infectivity central nervous system and lymphoreticular tissues of an infected cow find their way into products consumed by humans. Transmissions that might have occurred in the past would be difficult to detect because meat products are generally not distributed in a way that results in detectable geographic clusters.

Barring the discovery of a specific molecular signature (as in variant CJD), the most convincing clue to an association will come from the observation of trends over time of the incidence of typical and atypical BSE and of sporadic and variant CJD. With 4 diseases, each of which could have increasing, unchanging, or decreasing trends, there could be 81 (34) possible different combinations. However, it is highly likely that the trends for typical BSE and variant CJD will both decrease in parallel as feed bans continue to interrupt recycled contamination. The remaining combinations are thus reduced to 9 (32), and some of them could be highly informative.

For example, if the incidence of atypical BSE declines in parallel with that of typical BSE, its candidacy as a sporadic form of disease would be eliminated (because sporadic disease would not be influenced by current measures to prevent oral infection). If, on the other hand, atypical BSE continues to occur as typical BSE disappears, this would be a strong indication that it is indeed sporadic, and if in addition at least 1 form of what is presently considered as sporadic CJD (such as the type 2 M/V subtype shown to have a Western blot signature like BASE) were to increase, this would suggest (although not prove) a causal relationship (Figure 5).

Recognition of the different forms of BSE and CJD depends upon continuing systematic testing for both bovines and humans, but bovine testing will be vulnerable to heavy pressure from industry to dismantle the program as the commercial impact of declining BSE cases ceases to be an issue. Industry should be aware, however, of the implications of sporadic BSE. Its occurrence would necessitate the indefinite retention of all of the public health measures that exclude high-risk bovine tissues from the animal and human food chains, whereas its nonoccurrence would permit tissues that are now destroyed to be used as before, once orally acquired BSE has disappeared.



3:00 Afternoon Refreshment Break, Poster and Exhibit Viewing in the Exhibit

3:30 Transmission of the Italian Atypical BSE (BASE) in Humanized Mouse

Models Qingzhong Kong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pathology, Case Western Reserve

Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) is an atypical BSE strain
discovered recently in Italy, and similar or different atypical BSE cases
were also reported in other countries. The infectivity and phenotypes of
these atypical BSE strains in humans are unknown. In collaboration with
Pierluigi Gambetti, as well as Maria Caramelli and her co-workers, we have
inoculated transgenic mice expressing human prion protein with brain
homogenates from BASE or BSE infected cattle. Our data shows that about half
of the BASE-inoculated mice became infected with an average incubation time
of about 19 months; in contrast, none of the BSE-inoculated mice appear to
be infected after more than 2 years. ***These results indicate that BASE is
transmissible to humans and suggest that BASE is more virulent than
classical BSE in humans.

6:30 Close of Day One

1997 TO 2006. SPORADIC CJD CASES TRIPLED, with phenotype
of 'UNKNOWN' strain growing. ...

There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last
week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance

He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively
SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.


MARCH 26, 2003

RE-Monitoring the occurrence of emerging forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease in the United States

Email Terry S. Singeltary:

I lost my mother to hvCJD (Heidenhain Variant CJD). I would like to

comment on the CDC's attempts to monitor the occurrence of emerging

forms of CJD. Asante, Collinge et al [1] have reported that BSE

transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead to an alternate

phenotype that is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc, the commonest

sporadic CJD. However, CJD and all human TSEs are not reportable

nationally. CJD and all human TSEs must be made reportable in every

state and internationally. I hope that the CDC does not continue to

expect us to still believe that the 85%+ of all CJD cases which are

sporadic are all spontaneous, without route/source. We have many TSEs in

the USA in both animal and man. CWD in deer/elk is spreading rapidly and

CWD does transmit to mink, ferret, cattle, and squirrel monkey by

intracerebral inoculation. With the known incubation periods in other

TSEs, oral transmission studies of CWD may take much longer. Every

victim/family of CJD/TSEs should be asked about route and source of this

agent. To prolong this will only spread the agent and needlessly expose

others. In light of the findings of Asante and Collinge et al, there

should be drastic measures to safeguard the medical and surgical arena

from sporadic CJDs and all human TSEs. I only ponder how many sporadic

CJDs in the USA are type 2 PrPSc?

Diagnosis and Reporting of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Singeltary, Sr et al. JAMA.2001; 285: 733-734.




[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk
Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of
Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

[Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)



9 December 2005
Division of Dockets Management (RFA-305)

James J. Kramer, Ph.D.
Vice President, Corporate Operations

Embassy of Japan

Dockets Entered on December 22, 2005
2005D-0330, Guidance for Industry and FDA Review Staff on Collection of
by Automated ... EC 203, McDonald's Restaurants Corporation, Vol #:, 34 ...

03-025IF 03-025IF-631 Linda A. Detwiler [PDF]
Page 1. 03-025IF 03-025IF-631 Linda A. Detwiler Page 2. Page 3. Page 4.
Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page 10. Page 11. Page 12.

03-025IF 03-025IF-634 Linda A. Detwiler [PDF]
Page 1. 03-025IF 03-025IF-634 Linda A. Detwiler Page 2.
Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8.

Page 1 of 17 9/13/2005 [PDF]
... 2005 6:17 PM To: Subject: [Docket
No. 03-025IFA]
FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food ...

03-025IFA 03-025IFA-6 Jason Frost [PDF]
... Zealand Embassy COMMENTS ON FEDERAL REGISTER 9 CFR Parts 309 et al
[Docket No. 03-
025IF] Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and

In its opinion of 7-8 December 2000 (EC 2000), the SSC ... [PDF]
Page 1. Linda A. Detwiler, DVM 225 Hwy 35 Red Bank, New Jersey 07701 Phone:
Cell: 732-580-9391 Fax: 732-741-7751 June 22, 2005 FSIS Docket Clerk US ...

Terry S. Singeltary SR.
P.O. Box 42
Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

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