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From: TSS ()
Subject: Atypical BSE in Germany—Proof of transmissibility and biochemical characterization
Date: August 20, 2006 at 3:33 pm PST

Copyright © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Atypical BSE in Germany—Proof of transmissibility and biochemical characterization

A. Buschmanna, A. Gretzschela, A.-G. Biacabeb, K. Schiebelc, C. Coronad, C. Hoffmanna, M. Eidena, T. Baronb, C. Casaloned and Martin H. Groschupa, ,

aFriedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI), Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Boddenblick 5a, 17493 Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany
bAFSSA-Lyon, Unite ATNC, Lyon, France
cInstitut für Biochemie, Universitity Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
dCEA, Instituto Zooprofilattico di Turino, Turin, Italy

Received 11 January 2006; revised 23 May 2006; accepted 2 June 2006. Available online 17 August 2006.


Abstract
Intensive active surveillance has uncovered two atypical German BSE cases in older cattle which resemble the two different atypical BSE phenotypes that have recently been described in France (designated H-type) and Italy (designated L-type or BASE). The H-type is characterized by a significantly higher molecular size, but a conventional glycopattern of the proteinase K treated abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), while the L-type PrPSc has only a slightly lower molecular size and a distinctly different glycopattern. In this paper we describe the successful transmission of both German atypical BSE cases to transgenic mice overexpressing bovine PrPC. Upon challenge with the L-type, these mice developed BSE after a substantially shorter incubation period than any classical BSE transmission using these mice to date. In contrast, the incubation period was distinctly prolonged when these mice were challenged with the H-type. PrPSc accumulated in the brains of these mice were of the same atypical BSE type that had been used for the transmission. These atypical cases suggest the possible existence of sporadic BSE cases in bovines. It is thus feasible that the BSE epidemic in the UK could have also been initiated by an intraspecies transmission from a sporadic BSE case.

Keywords: BSE; Cattle; PrPSc; Biochemical differentiation


http://www.sciencedirect.com/

> These atypical cases suggest the possible existence of sporadic BSE cases in bovines. It is thus

> feasible that the BSE epidemic in the UK could have also been initiated by an intraspecies

> transmission from a sporadic BSE case.

OVER 20 strains of typical scrapie documented, who knows how many atypical strains, all rendered and fed back to other species for human and animal consumption for decades, yet they wish us to believe the one strain only theory in the bovine and human i.e. BSE to nvCJD, and then want us to believe in magic i.e. the spontaneous myth with all other TSE in the bovine to human? IF atypical BSE i.e. BASE is so similar to some sporadic CJD's, then how in the hell did they all of a sudden become spontaneous? could it not be so simple as an atypical BSE i.e. BASE was transmitted the same way most of all of the other BSE cattle were i.e. feed of just an atypical source? why would these animals not develop an atypical BSE i.e. BASE from the same oral route? and or possibly even some lateral/horizontal transmission. However, the spontaneous TSE theory in any species in the field has never been proven. The in vitro BSE/TSE that Soto and Prusiner claim to have developed looks like no other natural field TSE ever seen before, and as the infectious aspect of the study is questionable to say the least. Also, please explain to me how a distinct synthetic prion, of a strain that is supposedly unlike any other we have ever seen, how can this explain 6 different documented phenotypes of sporadic CJD to date? OR, if you render an atypical TSE of what ever phenotype, in what ever species, of the atypical strain and feed it to another whatever species, nothing happens right x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 etc passage? This has been proven, correct? please show me these transmission studies? ALL other TSE only happens spontaneously, right? NOT in my wildest dreams. but what a dream it is to wish something away with junk science. odd, how the USDA et al never really believed in this spontaneous theory for some time, and now it's gone International, along with the OIEs GW BSE MRR policy, the legal trading of all strains of all TSE. Literally thousands and thousands of TONS of potential mad cow protein IN COMMERCE STILL IN THE USA, and what about that BSE MRR policy and all the supposedly BSE FREE products in the USA that is going to other Countries??? ITs like the last 30 years of the attempt to eradicate this disease globally went down the tubes over night. Good luck Switzerland, you better seal your borders and keep them that way. ...TSS

Science 30 July 2004:
Vol. 305. no. 5684, pp. 673 - 676
DOI: 10.1126/science.1100195


Reports
Synthetic Mammalian Prions
Giuseppe Legname,1,2* Ilia V. Baskakov,1,2* Hoang-Oanh B. Nguyen,1 Detlev Riesner,6 Fred E. Cohen,1,3,4 Stephen J. DeArmond,1,5 Stanley B. Prusiner1,2,4

Recombinant mouse prion protein (recMoPrP) produced in Escherichia coli was polymerized into amyloid fibrils that represent a subset of ß sheet–rich structures. Fibrils consisting of recMoPrP(89–230) were inoculated intracerebrally into transgenic (Tg) mice expressing MoPrP(89–231). The mice developed neurologic dysfunction between 380 and 660 days after inoculation. Brain extracts showed protease-resistant PrP by Western blotting; these extracts transmitted disease to wild-type FVB mice and Tg mice overexpressing PrP, with incubation times of 150 and 90 days, respectively. Neuropathological findings suggest that a novel prion strain was created. Our results provide compelling evidence that prions are infectious proteins.

1 Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
2 Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
3 Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
4 Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
5 Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
6 Institut für Physikalische Biologie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.


* These two authors contributed equally to this work.

Present address: Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: stanley@itsa.ucsf.edu

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/305/5684/673

An End to the Prion Debate?

Don’t Count on It

A bold set of prion experiments in mice

may have proven that the misshapen proteins

are, by themselves, infectious. If the

work holds up, it will be a watershed in

prion biology, validating the belief that

these proteins alone are the culprits in

“mad cow disease” and similar illnesses.

As is typical for the controversy-laden

field, however, many scientists express reservations

about the study on page 673. It was

led by Stanley Prusiner of the University of

California, San Francisco, who won the

Nobel Prize in 1997 for discovering prions.

“It’s really a striking result that seems to

fill in one more piece of the infectivity puzzle,”

says Byron Caughey, a biochemist at

the National Institutes of Health’s Rocky

Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, Montana.

“But,” he adds, “it’s worth pointing out

some significant caveats.”

For years, biologists have tried to prove

that a protein called PrP can misfold and

become an infectious prion by purifying

protein clumps from diseased brains and

injecting them into healthy animals. But it

hasn’t been clear that PrP alone was what

was being injected; using synthetic misfolded

PrP, meanwhile, hasn’t reliably triggered

disease.

In their tests, Prusiner and colleagues used

transgenic mice making 16 times the normal

amount of PrP. These mice express a truncated

PrP that may more readily make up prion

clumps. This, the group reasoned, might sensitize

the animals to introduced PrP.

To obtain PrP free of brain tissue, Prusiner’s

team genetically altered Escherichia coli

bacteria into producing PrP fragments that

they misfolded to form amyloid fibrils, which

have been implicated in various brain diseases.

Prusiner’s team injected those prion

fibrils into the brains of the mice.

Almost a year later, with no animals

sick, the researchers were ready to declare

the study a failure. But then, 380 days after

being inoculated, one of the mice showed

symptoms of a prionlike disease. Eventually,

all seven inoculated mice showed neurological

disease, the last one 660 days after

injection.

Prusiner’s team also inoculated a batch of

normal animals with brain tissue from one of

the sick ones. These rodents took about 150

days to sicken.

“It is a spectacular breakthrough,” says

Neil Cashman, a neuroscientist at the University

of Toronto. “This is the beginning

of the end of all the objections about the

prion hypothesis.”

Not so fast, say some experts. Do

Prusiner’s mice with excess PrP get sick normally?

wonders John Collinge, director of

the Medical Research Council Prion Unit at

University College London. His team had

relied on rodents with 10 times the normal

level of PrP but abandoned them after finding

prion disease–like pathology in animals

that hadn’t been inoculated with anything.

Prusiner’s mice, says Collinge, may be

“poised” to become infectious even without

the inoculation; giving them a shot of synthetic,

misfolded PrP may push them over

the edge, but so might other stresses.

The long latency time between inoculation

and disease also worries prion experts.

Some wonder if the experiments were contaminated

by other prion strains in the lab.

Yale University neuropathologist Laura

Manuelidis, who has long criticized the prion

hypothesis, says the brain samples from

some of Prusiner’s mice resemble RML

scrapie, a common strain. Prusiner counters

that with contamination, the control animals

inoculated with saline should have gotten

sick as well.

Another explanation for long latency is

that infecting animals with synthetic PrP is

inefficient. The first inoculations may have

contained few prions, says Prusiner. This

might also explain why no one has yet accomplished

the gold-standard experiment:

infecting normal mice, not transgenic ones,

with pure prion proteins. Until then, one of

biomedicine’s longest-running controversies

is likely to continue. –JENNIFER COUZIN

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/reprint/305/5684/589a.pdf

Journal of Virology, July 2003, p. 7611-7622, Vol. 77, No. 13
0022-538X/03/$08.00+0 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.77.13.7611-7622.2003
Copyright © 2003, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Molecular Distinction between Pathogenic and Infectious Properties of the Prion Protein
Roberto Chiesa,1,2 Pedro Piccardo,3 Elena Quaglio,1, Bettina Drisaldi,1, San Ling Si-Hoe,1 Masaki Takao,3, Bernardino Ghetti,3 and David A. Harris1*

Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110,1 Dulbecco Telethon Institute and Department of Neuroscience, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri," Milan 20157, Italy,2 Division of Neuropathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 462023

Received 8 January 2003/ Accepted 2 April 2003


ABSTRACT

Tg(PG14) mice express a prion protein (PrP) with a nine-octapeptide insertion associated with a human familial prion disease. These animals spontaneously develop a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, neuronal apoptosis, and accumulation in the brain of an aggregated and weakly protease-resistant form of mutant PrP (designated PG14spon). Brain homogenates from Tg(PG14) mice fail to transmit disease after intracerebral inoculation into recipient mice, indicating that PG14spon, although pathogenic, is distinct from PrPSc, the infectious form of PrP. In contrast, inoculation of Tg(PG14) mice with exogenous prions of the RML strain induces accumulation of PG14RML, a PrPSc form of the mutant protein that is infectious and highly protease resistant. Like PrPSc, both PG14spon and PG14RML display conformationally masked epitopes in the central and octapeptide repeat regions. However, these two forms differ profoundly in their oligomeric states, with PG14RML aggregates being much larger and more resistant to dissociation. Our analysis provides new molecular insight into an emerging puzzle in prion biology, the discrepancy between the infectious and neurotoxic properties of PrP.

http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/full/77/13/7611?view=long&pmid=12805461

NEUROSCIENCE
Strain-specified characteristics of mouse synthetic prions

Giuseppe Legname *, , Hoang-Oanh B. Nguyen *, Ilia V. Baskakov * , Fred E. Cohen *, ¶, ||, Stephen J. DeArmond * , **, and Stanley B. Prusiner *, , ||,

*Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Departments of Neurology, ¶Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, ||Biochemistry and Biophysics, and **Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143

Contributed by Stanley B. Prusiner, December 6, 2004


Synthetic prions were produced in our laboratory by using recombinant mouse prion protein (MoPrP) composed of residues 89-230. The first mouse synthetic prion strain (MoSP1) was inoculated into transgenic (Tg) 9949 mice expressing N-terminally truncated MoPrP(23-88) and WT FVB mice expressing full-length MoPrP. On first and second passage in Tg9949 mice, MoSP1 prions caused disease in 516 ± 27 and 258 ± 25 days, respectively; numerous, large vacuoles were found in the brainstem and gray matter of the cerebellum. MoSP1 prions passaged in Tg9949 mice were inoculated into FVB mice; on first and second passage, the FVB mice exhibited incubation times of 154 ± 4 and 130 ± 3 days, respectively. In FVB mice, vacuolation was less intense but more widely distributed, with numerous lesions in the hippocampus and cerebellar white matter. This constellation of widespread neuropatho-logic changes was similar to that found in FVB mice inoculated with Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) prions, a strain derived from a sheep with scrapie. Conformational stability studies showed that the half-maximal GdnHCl (Gdn1/2) concentration for denaturation of MoSP1 prions passaged in Tg9949 mice was 4.2 M; passage in FVB mice reduced the Gdn1/2 value to 1.7 M. RML prions passaged in either Tg9949 or FVB mice exhibited Gdn1/2 values of 1.8 M. The incubation times, neuropathological lesion profiles, and Gdn1/2 values indicate that MoSP1 prions differ from RML and many other prion strains derived from sheep with scrapie and cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.


neurodegeneration

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Author contributions: G.L., I.V.B., F.E.C., and S.B.P. designed research; H.-O.B.N. and S.J.D. performed research; G.L., S.J.D., and S.B.P. analyzed data; S.B.P. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; and G.L., S.J.D., and S.B.P. wrote the paper.

Abbreviations: PrP, prion protein; MoPrP, mouse PrP; PrPSc, disease-causing isoform of PrP; MoSP1, mouse synthetic prion1; rec, recombinant; Tg, transgenic; RML, Rocky Mountain Laboratory; Gdn1/2, half-maximal GdnHCl; HuM, human-mouse; PK, proteinase K.

G.L., S.J.D., and S.B.P. have a financial interest in InPro Biotechnology, Inc.

Present address: Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD 21201.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: stanley@ind.ucsf.edu .

© 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/102/6/2168

Subject: MAD COW FEED RECALLS ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006 KY, LA, MS, AL, GA, AND TN 11,000+ TONS
Date: August 16, 2006 at 9:19 am PST

RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: VETERINARY MEDICINE - CLASS II
______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-115-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Hiseville Feed & Seed Co., Hiseville, KY, by telephone and letter on or about July 14, 2006. FDA initiated recall is ongoing.
REASON
Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak which may contain ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
Approximately 2,223 tons
DISTRIBUTION
KY

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-116-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Rips Farm Center, Tollesboro, KY, by telephone and letter on July 14, 2006. FDA initiated recall is ongoing.
REASON
Custom made feeds contain ingredient called Pro-Lak which may contain ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
1,220 tons
DISTRIBUTION
KY

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom made dairy feed, Recall # V-117-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Kentwood Co-op, Kentwood, LA, by telephone on June 27, 2006. FDA initiated recall is completed.
REASON
Possible contamination of animal feed ingredients, including ingredients that are used in feed for dairy animals, with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
40 tons
DISTRIBUTION
LA and MS

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk Dairy Feed, Recall V-118-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Cal Maine Foods, Inc., Edwards, MS, by telephone on June 26, 2006. FDA initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of animal feed ingredients, including ingredients that are used in feed for dairy animals, with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
7,150 tons
DISTRIBUTION
MS

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-119-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Walthall County Co-op, Tylertown, MS, by telephone on June 26, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
87 tons
DISTRIBUTION
MS

______________________________
PRODUCT
Bulk custom dairy pre-mixes, Recall # V-120-6
CODE
None
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Ware Milling Inc., Houston, MS, by telephone on June 23, 2006. Firm initiated recall is complete.
REASON
Possible contamination of dairy animal feeds with ruminant derived meat and bone meal.
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
350 tons
DISTRIBUTION
AL and MS

______________________________
PRODUCT
a) Tucker Milling, LLC Tm 32% Sinking Fish Grower, #2680-Pellet,
50 lb. bags, Recall # V-121-6;
b) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder Pellet,
50 lb. bags, Recall # V-122-6;
c) Tucker Milling, LLC #31232 Game Bird Grower,
50 lb. bags, Recall # V-123-6;
d) Tucker Milling, LLC 31227-Crumble, Game Bird Starter, BMD
Medicated, 50 lb bags, Recall # V-124-6;
e) Tucker Milling, LLC #31120, Game Bird Breeder, 50 lb bags,
Recall # V-125-6;
f) Tucker Milling, LLC #30230, 30 % Turkey Starter, 50 lb bags,
Recall # V-126-6;
g) Tucker Milling, LLC #30116, TM Broiler Finisher,
50 lb bags, Recall # V-127-6
CODE
All products manufactured from 02/01/2005 until 06/20/2006
RECALLING FIRM/MANUFACTURER
Recalling Firm: Tucker Milling LLC, Guntersville, AL, by telephone and visit on June 20, 2006, and by letter on June 23, 2006.
Manufacturer: H. J. Baker and Brothers Inc., Stamford, CT. Firm initiated recall is ongoing.
REASON
Poultry and fish feeds which were possibly contaminated with ruminant based protein were not labeled as "Do not feed to ruminants".
VOLUME OF PRODUCT IN COMMERCE
7,541-50 lb bags
DISTRIBUTION
AL, GA, MS, and TN

END OF ENFORCEMENT REPORT FOR AUGUST 9, 2006

###


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ENFORCE/2006/ENF00964.html


Oral transmission and early lymphoid tropism of chronic wasting disease
PrPres in mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus )
Christina J. Sigurdson1, Elizabeth S. Williams2, Michael W. Miller3,
Terry R. Spraker1,4, Katherine I. O'Rourke5 and Edward A. Hoover1

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical
Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523- 1671, USA1
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, 1174 Snowy
Range Road, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070, USA 2
Colorado Division of Wildlife, Wildlife Research Center, 317 West
Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526-2097, USA3
Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 300 West
Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1671, USA4
Animal Disease Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US
Department of Agriculture, 337 Bustad Hall, Washington State University,
Pullman, WA 99164-7030, USA5

Author for correspondence: Edward Hoover.Fax +1 970 491 0523. e-mail
ehoover@lamar.colostate.edu

Mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus) were inoculated orally with a
brain homogenate prepared from mule deer with naturally occurring
chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion-induced transmissible spongiform
encephalopathy. Fawns were necropsied and examined for PrP res, the
abnormal prion protein isoform, at 10, 42, 53, 77, 78 and 80 days
post-inoculation (p.i.) using an immunohistochemistry assay modified to
enhance sensitivity. PrPres was detected in alimentary-tract-associated
lymphoid tissues (one or more of the following: retropharyngeal lymph
node, tonsil, Peyer's patch and ileocaecal lymph node) as early as 42
days p.i. and in all fawns examined thereafter (53 to 80 days p.i.). No
PrPres staining was detected in lymphoid tissue of three control fawns
receiving a control brain inoculum, nor was PrPres detectable in neural
tissue of any fawn. PrPres-specific staining was markedly enhanced by
sequential tissue treatment with formic acid, proteinase K and hydrated
autoclaving prior to immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal
antibody F89/160.1.5. These results indicate that CWD PrP res can be
detected in lymphoid tissues draining the alimentary tract within a few
weeks after oral exposure to infectious prions and may reflect the
initial pathway of CWD infection in deer. The rapid infection of deer
fawns following exposure by the most plausible natural route is
consistent with the efficient horizontal transmission of CWD in nature
and enables accelerated studies of transmission and pathogenesis in the
native species.

snip...

These results indicate that mule deer fawns develop detectable PrP res
after oral exposure to an inoculum containing CWD prions. In the
earliest post-exposure period, CWD PrPres was traced to the lymphoid
tissues draining the oral and intestinal mucosa (i.e. the
retropharyngeal lymph nodes, tonsil, ileal Peyer's patches and
ileocaecal lymph nodes), which probably received the highest initial
exposure to the inoculum. Hadlow et al. (1982) demonstrated scrapie
agent in the tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum
and spleen in a 10-month-old naturally infected lamb by mouse bioassay.
Eight of nine sheep had infectivity in the retropharyngeal lymph node.
He concluded that the tissue distribution suggested primary infection
via the gastrointestinal tract. The tissue distribution of PrPres in the
early stages of infection in the fawns is strikingly similar to that
seen in naturally infected sheep with scrapie. These findings support
oral exposure as a natural route of CWD infection in deer and support
oral inoculation as a reasonable exposure route for experimental studies
of CWD.

snip...

http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/80/10/2757

Subject: MAD DEER/ELK DISEASE AND POTENTIAL SOURCES
Date: Sat, 25 May 2002 18:41:46 -0700
From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr."
Reply-To: BSE-L
To: BSE-L

8420-20.5% Antler Developer
For Deer and Game in the wild
Guaranteed Analysis Ingredients / Products Feeding Directions

snip...

_animal protein_

http://www.surefed.com/deer.htm

BODE'S GAME FEED SUPPLEMENT #400
A RATION FOR DEER
NET WEIGHT 50 POUNDS
22.6 KG.

snip...

_animal protein_

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod7.htm

Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products,
Forage Products, Roughage Products 15%, Molasses Products,
__Animal Protein Products__,
Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Pyosphate, Salt,
Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol
(source of Vitamin D3), Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement,
Riboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Panothenate, Choline
Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Soduim Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine
Hydorchloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, d-Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc
Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried
Sacchoromyces Berevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum,
Artificial Flavors added.

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod6.htm


===================================

MORE ANIMAL PROTEIN PRODUCTS FOR DEER

Bode's #1 Game Pellets
A RATION FOR DEER
F3153

GUARANTEED ANALYSIS
Crude Protein (Min) 16%
Crude Fat (Min) 2.0%
Crude Fiber (Max) 19%
Calcium (Ca) (Min) 1.25%
Calcium (Ca) (Max) 1.75%
Phosphorus (P) (Min) 1.0%
Salt (Min) .30%
Salt (Max) .70%


Ingredients

Grain Products, Plant Protein Products, Processed Grain By-Products,
Forage Products, Roughage Products, 15% Molasses Products,
__Animal Protein Products__,
Monocalcium Phosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Salt,
Calcium Carbonate, Vitamin A Acetate with D-activated Animal Sterol
(source of Vitamin D3) Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin B12 Supplement,
Roboflavin Supplement, Niacin Supplement, Calcium Pantothenate, Choline
Chloride, Folic Acid, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Complex, Pyridoxine
Hydrochloride, Thiamine Mononitrate, e - Biotin, Manganous Oxide, Zinc
Oxide, Ferrous Carbonate, Calcium Iodate, Cobalt Carbonate, Dried
Saccharyomyces Cerevisiae Fermentation Solubles, Cellulose gum,
Artificial Flavors added.

FEEDING DIRECTIONS
Feed as Creep Feed with Normal Diet

http://www.bodefeed.com/prod8.htm

INGREDIENTS

Grain Products, Roughage Products (not more than 35%), Processed Grain
By-Products, Plant Protein Products, Forage Products,
__Animal Protein Products__,
L-Lysine, Calcium Carbonate, Salt, Monocalcium/Dicalcium
Phosphate, Yeast Culture, Magnesium Oxide, Cobalt Carbonate, Basic
Copper Chloride, Manganese Sulfate, Manganous Oxide, Sodium Selenite,
Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Oxide, Sodium Selenite, Potassium Iodide,
Ethylenediamine Dihydriodide, Vitamin E Supplement, Vitamin A
Supplement, Vitamin D3 Supplement, Mineral Oil, Mold Inhibitor, Calcium
Lignin Sulfonate, Vitamin B12 Supplement, Menadione Sodium Bisulfite
Complex, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic Acid,
Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Mineral Oil, Chromium Tripicolinate

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Deer Builder Pellets is designed to be fed to deer under range
conditions or deer that require higher levels of protein. Feed to deer
during gestation, fawning, lactation, antler growth and pre-rut, all
phases which require a higher level of nutrition. Provide adequate
amounts of good quality roughage and fresh water at all times.

http://www.profilenutrition.com/Products/Specialty/deer_builder_pellets.html


===================================================

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & HUMAN SERVICES
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

April 9, 2001 WARNING LETTER

01-PHI-12
CERTIFIED MAIL
RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED

Brian J. Raymond, Owner
Sandy Lake Mills
26 Mill Street
P.O. Box 117
Sandy Lake, PA 16145
PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT

Tel: 215-597-4390

Dear Mr. Raymond:

Food and Drug Administration Investigator Gregory E. Beichner conducted
an inspection of your animal feed manufacturing operation, located in
Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania, on March 23,
2001, and determined that your firm manufactures animal feeds including
feeds containing prohibited materials. The inspection found significant
deviations from the requirements set forth in
Title 21, code of Federal Regulations, part 589.2000 - Animal Proteins
Prohibited in Ruminant Feed. The regulation is intended to prevent the
establishment and amplification of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
(BSE) . Such deviations cause products being manufactured at this
facility to be misbranded within the meaning of Section 403(f), of the
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act (the Act).

Our investigation found failure to label your
swine feed with the required cautionary statement "Do Not Feed to cattle
or other Ruminants" The FDA suggests that the statement be
distinguished
by different type-size or color or other means of highlighting the
statement so that it is easily noticed by a purchaser.

In addition, we note that you are using approximately 140 pounds of
cracked corn to flush your mixer used in the manufacture of animal
feeds containing prohibited material. This
flushed material is fed to wild game including deer, a ruminant animal.
Feed material which may potentially contain prohibited material should
not be fed to ruminant animals which may become part of the food chain.

The above is not intended to be an all-inclusive list of deviations from
the regulations. As a manufacturer of materials intended for animal
feed use, you are responsible for assuring that your overall operation
and the products you manufacture and distribute are in compliance with
the law. We have enclosed a copy of FDA's Small Entity Compliance Guide
to assist you with complying with the regulation... blah, blah, blah...

http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/g1115d.pdf

snip...full text ;

2003D-0186
Guidance for Industry: Use of Material From Deer and Elk In Animal Feed


EMC 1
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Vol #:
1

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/03/Jun03/060903/060903.htm


J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8


Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months, respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

PMID: 6997404
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=6997404&dopt=Abstract


WE know now, and we knew decades ago, that 5.5 grams of suspect feed in TEXAS was enough to kill 100 cows ;


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2001/NEW00752.html


NOT TO FORGET THE TEXAS MAD COW THAT DID GET AWAY ;


http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2004/NEW01061.html

look at the table and you'll see that as little as 1 mg (or 0.001 gm) caused 7% (1 of 14) of the cows to come down with BSE;


Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates

Corinne Ida Lasmézas, Emmanuel Comoy, Stephen Hawkins, Christian Herzog, Franck Mouthon, Timm Konold, Frédéric Auvré, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nicole Salès, Gerald Wells, Paul Brown, Jean-Philippe Deslys
Summary The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to non-human primates. We gave two macaques a 5 g oral dose of brain homogenate from a BSE-infected cow. One macaque developed vCJD-like neurological disease 60 months after exposure, whereas the other remained free of disease at 76 months. On the basis of these findings and data from other studies, we made a preliminary estimate of the food exposure risk for man, which provides additional assurance that existing public health measures can prevent transmission of BSE to man.


snip...


BSE bovine brain inoculum

100 g 10 g 5 g 1 g 100 mg 10 mg 1 mg 0·1 mg 0·01 mg

Primate (oral route)* 1/2 (50%)

Cattle (oral route)* 10/10 (100%) 7/9 (78%) 7/10 (70%) 3/15 (20%) 1/15 (7%) 1/15 (7%)

RIII mice (ic ip route)* 17/18 (94%) 15/17 (88%) 1/14 (7%)

PrPres biochemical detection

The comparison is made on the basis of calibration of the bovine inoculum used in our study with primates against a bovine brain inoculum with a similar PrPres concentration that was

inoculated into mice and cattle.8 *Data are number of animals positive/number of animals surviving at the time of clinical onset of disease in the first positive animal (%). The accuracy of

bioassays is generally judged to be about plus or minus 1 log. ic ip=intracerebral and intraperitoneal.

Table 1: Comparison of transmission rates in primates and cattle infected orally with similar BSE brain inocula


Published online January 27, 2005

http://www.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa


It is clear that the designing scientists must

also have shared Mr Bradley’s surprise at the results because all the dose

levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s145d.pdf


2

6. It also appears to me that Mr Bradley’s answer (that it would take less than say 100

grams) was probably given with the benefit of hindsight; particularly if one

considers that later in the same answer Mr Bradley expresses his surprise that it

could take as little of 1 gram of brain to cause BSE by the oral route within the

same species. This information did not become available until the "attack rate"

experiment had been completed in 1995/96. This was a titration experiment

designed to ascertain the infective dose. A range of dosages was used to ensure

that the actual result was within both a lower and an upper limit within the study

and the designing scientists would not have expected all the dose levels to trigger

infection. The dose ranges chosen by the most informed scientists at that time

ranged from 1 gram to three times one hundred grams. It is clear that the designing

scientists must have also shared Mr Bradley’s surprise at the results because all the

dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s147f.pdf


Re: BSE .1 GRAM LETHAL NEW STUDY SAYS via W.H.O. Dr Maura Ricketts

[BBC radio 4 FARM news]


http://www.maddeer.org/audio/BBC4farmingtoday2_1_03.ram


http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm


2) Infectious dose:

To cattle: 1 gram of infected brain material (by oral ingestion)


http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci/bio/bseesbe.shtml


Published online before print October 20, 2005

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0502296102
Medical Sciences

A newly identified type of scrapie agent can naturally infect sheep with resistant PrP genotypes

( sheep prion | transgenic mice )

Annick Le Dur *, Vincent Béringue *, Olivier Andréoletti , Fabienne Reine *, Thanh Lan Laï *, Thierry Baron , Bjørn Bratberg ¶, Jean-Luc Vilotte ||, Pierre Sarradin **, Sylvie L. Benestad ¶, and Hubert Laude *
*Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires and ||Génétique Biochimique et Cytogénétique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France; Unité Mixte de Recherche, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Interactions Hôte Agent Pathogène, 31066 Toulouse, France; Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, Unité Agents Transmissibles Non Conventionnels, 69364 Lyon, France; **Pathologie Infectieuse et Immunologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 37380 Nouzilly, France; and ¶Department of Pathology, National Veterinary Institute, 0033 Oslo, Norway


Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved September 12, 2005 (received for review March 21, 2005)

Scrapie in small ruminants belongs to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, a family of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and can transmit within and between species by ingestion or inoculation. Conversion of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), normal cellular PrP (PrPc), into a misfolded form, abnormal PrP (PrPSc), plays a key role in TSE transmission and pathogenesis. The intensified surveillance of scrapie in the European Union, together with the improvement of PrPSc detection techniques, has led to the discovery of a growing number of so-called atypical scrapie cases. These include clinical Nor98 cases first identified in Norwegian sheep on the basis of unusual pathological and PrPSc molecular features and "cases" that produced discordant responses in the rapid tests currently applied to the large-scale random screening of slaughtered or fallen animals. Worryingly, a substantial proportion of such cases involved sheep with PrP genotypes known until now to confer natural resistance to conventional scrapie. Here we report that both Nor98 and discordant cases, including three sheep homozygous for the resistant PrPARR allele (A136R154R171), efficiently transmitted the disease to transgenic mice expressing ovine PrP, and that they shared unique biological and biochemical features upon propagation in mice. These observations support the view that a truly infectious TSE agent, unrecognized until recently, infects sheep and goat flocks and may have important implications in terms of scrapie control and public health.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Author contributions: H.L. designed research; A.L.D., V.B., O.A., F.R., T.L.L., J.-L.V., and H.L. performed research; T.B., B.B., P.S., and S.L.B. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; V.B., O.A., and H.L. analyzed data; and H.L. wrote the paper.

A.L.D. and V.B. contributed equally to this work.

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Hubert Laude, E-mail: laude@jouy.inra.fr

www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0502296102


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0502296102v1


12/10/76
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTE ON SCRAPIE
Office Note
CHAIRMAN: PROFESSOR PETER WILDY

snip...

A The Present Position with respect to Scrapie
A] The Problem

Scrapie is a natural disease of sheep and goats. It is a slow
and inexorably progressive degenerative disorder of the nervous system
and it ia fatal. It is enzootic in the United Kingdom but not in all
countries.

The field problem has been reviewed by a MAFF working group
(ARC 35/77). It is difficult to assess the incidence in Britain for
a variety of reasons but the disease causes serious financial loss;
it is estimated that it cost Swaledale breeders alone $l.7 M during
the five years 1971-1975. A further inestimable loss arises from the
closure of certain export markets, in particular those of the United
States, to British sheep.

It is clear that scrapie in sheep is important commercially and
for that reason alone effective measures to control it should be
devised as quickly as possible.

Recently the question has again been brought up as to whether
scrapie is transmissible to man. This has followed reports that the
disease has been transmitted to primates. One particularly lurid
speculation (Gajdusek 1977) conjectures that the agents of scrapie,
kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and transmissible encephalopathy of
mink are varieties of a single "virus". The U.S. Department of
Agriculture concluded that it could "no longer justify or permit
scrapie-blood line and scrapie-exposed sheep and goats to be processed
for human or animal food at slaughter or rendering plants" (ARC 84/77)"
The problem is emphasised by the finding that some strains of scrapie
produce lesions identical to the once which characterise the human
dementias"

Whether true or not. the hypothesis that these agents might be
transmissible to man raises two considerations. First, the safety
of laboratory personnel requires prompt attention. Second, action
such as the "scorched meat" policy of USDA makes the solution of the
acrapie problem urgent if the sheep industry is not to suffer
grievously.

snip...

76/10.12/4.6

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1976/10/12004001.pdf

Date: July 19, 2006 at 12:06 pm PST
SCRAPIE USA UPDATE MAY 31, 2006


Infected and Source Flocks

As of May 31, 2006, there were 93 scrapie infected and source flocks (Figure 3). There were 12 new infected and source flocks reported in May (Figure 4) with a total of 67 flocks reported for FY 2006 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2006 are 53 (Figure 6), with 7 flocks released in May. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2006 = 0.79 : 1. In addition, as of May 31, 2006, 216 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 33 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 33 newly confirmed cases in May 2006 (Figure 8). Eighteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat case was reported in March 2006. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released for FY 2006 are depicted in Chart 3. New infected and source statuses from 1997 to 2006 are depicted in Chart 4.

snip...

Scrapie Testing

In FY 2006, 26,185 animals have been tested for scrapie : 22,634 RSSS*; 2063 regulatory field cases; 61 necropsy validations, 5 rectal biopsy and 1427 regulatory third eyelid biopsies (Chart 9). ...

snip...END

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html

VERY VERY IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER


>> Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations
>> regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.


Research Project: Study of Atypical Bse

Location: Virus and Prion Diseases of Livestock

Project Number: 3625-32000-073-07
Project Type: Specific C/A

Start Date: Sep 15, 2004
End Date: Sep 14, 2007

Objective:
The objective of this cooperative research project with Dr. Maria Caramelli
from the Italian BSE Reference Laboratory in Turin, Italy, is to conduct
comparative studies with the U.S. bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
isolate and the atypical BSE isolates identified in Italy. The studies will
cover the following areas: 1. Evaluation of present diagnostics tools used
in the U.S. for the detection of atypical BSE cases. 2. Molecular comparison
of the U.S. BSE isolate and other typical BSE isolates with atypical BSE
cases. 3. Studies on transmissibility and tissue distribution of atypical
BSE isolates in cattle and other species.

Approach:
This project will be done as a Specific Cooperative Agreement with the
Italian BSE Reference Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del
Piemonte, in Turin, Italy. It is essential for the U.S. BSE surveillance
program to analyze the effectiveness of the U.S diagnostic tools for
detection of atypical cases of BSE. Molecular comparisons of the U.S. BSE
isolate with atypical BSE isolates will provide further characterization of
the U.S. BSE isolate. Transmission studies are already underway using brain
homogenates from atypical BSE cases into mice, cattle and sheep. It will be
critical to see whether the atypical BSE isolates behave similarly to
typical BSE isolates in terms of transmissibility and disease pathogenesis.
If transmission occurs, tissue distribution comparisons will be made between
cattle infected with the atypical BSE isolate and the U.S. BSE isolate.
Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations regarding
specific risk material (SRM) removal.


http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/projects/projects.htm?ACCN_NO=408490


3.57 The experiment which might have determined whether BSE and scrapie were
caused by the same agent (ie, the feeding of natural scrapie to cattle) was
never undertaken in the UK. It was, however, performed in the USA in 1979,
when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic in
the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of Agriculture in
Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE. 32 The findings of the
initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological
examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of the
CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the
Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of
Agriculture. 33 The results were not published at this point, since the
attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been
inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences
between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar
studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula
derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from
different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre.
34 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent,
though pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of
brain lesions characteristic of BSE.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/

The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or
neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr
Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the
project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States
Department of Agriculture. 33


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1988/10/00001001.pdf

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/

The results were not published at this point, since the attempted
transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been inconclusive.
The results of the clinical and histological differences between
scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar studies in
which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula derived
from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from
different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre.
34 The
results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent, though
pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of brain
lesions characteristic of BSE.

3.58 There are several possible reasons why the experiment was not performed
in the UK. It had been recommended by Sir Richard Southwood (Chairman of the
Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) in his letter to the
Permanent Secretary of MAFF, Mr (now Sir) Derek Andrews, on 21 June 1988, 35
though it was not specifically recommended in the Working Party Report or
indeed in the Tyrrell Committee Report (details of the Southwood Working
Party and the Tyrell Committee can be found in vol. 4: The Southwood Working
Party, 1988-89 and vol. 11: Scientists after Southwood respectively). The
direct inoculation of scrapie into calves was given low priority, because of
its high cost and because it was known that it had already taken place in
the USA. 36 It was also felt that the results of such an experiment would be
hard to interpret. While a negative result would be informative, a positive
result would need to demonstrate that when scrapie was transmitted to
cattle, the disease which developed in cattle was the same as BSE. 37 Given
the large number of strains of scrapie and the possibility that BSE was one
of them, it would be necessary to transmit every scrapie strain to cattle
separately, to test the hypothesis properly. Such an experiment would be
expensive. Secondly, as measures to control the epidemic took hold, the need
for the experiment from the policy viewpoint was not considered so urgent.
It was felt that the results would be mainly of academic interest. 38


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/

AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that
transmission of BSE to other species will invariably
present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.

snip...

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1991/01/04004001.pdf


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle

03-025IFA
03-025IFA-2
Terry S. Singeltary


9/13/2005

http://www.fsis.usda.gov/OPPDE/Comments/03-025IFA/03-025IFA-2.pdf

I'm still awaiting my reply from Dr. Prusiner ;

Statement from Stanley B. Prusiner, MD, About "Mad Cow" Disease in the U.S. January 27, 2004
Testimony before the food Safety Caucus of the House of Representatives about mad cow. Stanley Prusiner 06-May-04 18 k


http://www.agobservatory.org/library.cfm?refID=30405

Greetings,

as a lay person;-) i am thankful for Dr. Prusiners report below. I only
wish that he would elaborate on the spontaneous aspect of sporadic CJD
and how many of the 85%+ of all CJDs does he think happens spontaneously
without route and source of the agent? I am concerned that people who read
this, will come to the conclusion that all sporadic CJDs are a spontaneous
mutation, when in reality all sporadic CJD is, is CJD from unknown route
and source and they could be many. in fact, there could be many phenotypes
of CJD that are now called sporadic CJD... snip ... end

REPORT ON MEASURES RELATING TO BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY (BSE) IN THE UNITED STATES
HUMAN/ANIMAL TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Terry S. Singeltary Sr. 06-May-04 112 k


http://www.agobservatory.org/library.cfm?refID=30406

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

P.O. Box 42

Bacliff, Texas USA 77518






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