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From: TSS ()
Date: June 26, 2006 at 12:47 pm PST


OTTAWA, June 26, 2006 (15:00 EST) - The Canadian Food Inspection Agency
is banning cattle tissues capable of transmitting bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) from all animal feeds, pet foods and fertilizers.
The enhancement will significantly accelerate Canada's progress toward
eradicating the disease from the national cattle herd by preventing more
than 99% of any potential BSE infectivity from entering the Canadian
feed system.

The banned tissues, which are collectively known as specified risk
material (SRM), have been shown in infected cattle to contain
concentrated levels of the BSE agent. Canada has already applied
identical protection to the human food system, where SRM are removed
from all cattle slaughtered for human consumption. This measure is
internationally recognized as the most effective way to protect the
safety of food from BSE.

"This ban tightens already strong, internationally recognized feed
controls and shortens the path we must follow to move beyond BSE," said
the Honourable Chuck Strahl, Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food and
Minister for the Canadian Wheat Board. "Preventing all these materials
from entering the animal feed chain minimizes risks and demonstrates the
commitment of Canada's new government to take necessary, science-based
actions to address BSE."

Ongoing surveillance testing continues to indicate that the level of BSE
in Canada is very low. This is attributable to Canada's current feed
ban, which has prohibited the use of SRM in feed for cattle and other
ruminant animals since 1997. Extending SRM controls to all animal feeds
addresses potential contamination that could occur during feed
production, transportation, storage and use. Removing SRM from pet food
and fertilizers is intended to mitigate the risk associated with the
potential exposure of cattle and other susceptible animals to BSE
through the misuse of these products.

The new outcome-based regulations enter into force on July 12, 2007,
with additional time provided for small establishments to achieve full
compliance. In the meantime, an awareness campaign will be undertaken to
ensure that all regulated parties are fully aware of their
responsibilities and have adjusted their practices and procedures as
required. Special emphasis will be placed on working closely and in full
cooperation with small abattoirs to help them transition to the new
requirements and facilitate their long-term viability. The Government
has set aside $80 million to work with the provinces to assist
industry's implementation of the new feed controls.

Enhanced feed controls complete the Government's response to the
detection of BSE, consistent with the recommendations of the
international team of experts that reviewed Canada's situation. As a
priority, Canada first focused on human health protection, which was
achieved through the removal of SRM from the food system. Attention then
turned to animal health measures through intensified surveillance
testing for BSE and increased animal tracing capabilities.

SRM are defined as the skull, brain, trigeminal ganglia (nerves attached
to the brain), eyes, tonsils, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia
(nerves attached to the spinal cord) of cattle aged 30 months or older
and the distal ileum (portion of the small intestine) of cattle of all

For more information:
Fact Sheet: Canada's Enhanced Feed Ban



C. Animal Feed Restrictions

Specified Risk Materials (SRMs)
In the ``Feed Restrictions'' section of the report, the IRT
recommended: ``All SRM should be excluded from all animal feed,
including pet food.'' [p. 5] FDA has prohibited the use of most
mammalian proteins in ruminant feed since 1997. The IRT report stated
that, ``Considering the BSE situation in North America, the [IRT]
believes the partial (ruminant to ruminant) feed ban that is currently
in place is insufficient to prevent exposure of cattle to the BSE
agent.'' [p. 5] The IRT further stated that, ``While science would
support the feed bans limited to the prohibition of ruminant derived
[meat and bone meal] MBM in ruminant feed, practical difficulties of
enforcement demand more pragmatic and effective solutions.'' [p. 6]
Specifically, the IRT cited epidemiological evidence in the United
Kingdom that highlight the dangers of cattle infection through the
consumption of feed that had been contaminated accidentally when
manufactured in premises that legitimately used mammalian meat and bone
meal in feed for pigs and poultry. [p. 5] In addition, the IRT report
cited an ongoing attack rate study at the Veterinary Laboratories
Agency in the United Kingdom that demonstrates

[[Page 42297]]

transmission of BSE with 10 mg of infectious brain tissue. [p. 5]
Although not yet published, more recent results from this study have
demonstrated transmission with a lower dose of infectious brain tissue.
These levels are significantly lower than the 1 gram infectious dose
that had been demonstrated in the same study at the time the 1997 BSE
feed rule was issued. Further, the Harvard-Tuskegee Study showed that
removing SRMs from all animal feed reduces by 88 percent the potential
exposure of cattle to the BSE agent when 10 BSE infected cattle are
introduced into the United States. Accordingly, FDA has tentatively
concluded that it should propose removing SRMs from all animal feed to
adequately control the risks associated with cross contamination
throughout feed manufacture and distribution and with intentional or
unintentional misfeeding on the farm. FDA is currently working on a
proposal to accomplish this goal.

III. Significance of Guidance

This level 1 guidance is being issued consistent with FDA's good
guidance practices regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The guidance represents
the agency's current thinking about the manufacture and labeling of raw
meat foods for companion and captive noncompanion carnivores and
omnivores. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person
and will not operate to bind FDA or the public. An alternative approach
may be used if such approach satisfies the requirements of the
applicable statutes and regulations.


Currently in the U.S. , animal products that are prohibited from cattle feed
are _acceptable_ for use in pet food. Such products include meat and bone
meal, for example. However, FDA believes that the safeguards it has put into
place (i.e. ruminant feed rule) to prevent BSE in the U.S. have also
protected cats. To date, no case of FSE has been found in the U.S. FDA
continues to review these safeguards to be sure they are adequate,
especially in light of the BSE case found in Washington State in December,
2003. ...

A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: 21 Jun 2006
From: Terry Singeltary
Source:, 20 Jun 2006 [edited]

Mad Cow Feed Recall, USA, Albertville, AL, 16 Jun 2006; Feed Recalled
Over Mad Cow Violation
Livestock feed ingredients shipped to 9 states may have been
contaminated with cattle remains in violation of a 1997 ban to
protect against mad cow disease, a manufacturer said Tuesday [20 Jun 2006].

H.J. Baker & Bro. Inc. said it was recalling 3 livestock feed
ingredients, including 2 used to supplement feed given to dairy cows.
A sample tested by the Food and Drug Administration was positive for
cattle meat and bone meal, said Mark Hohnbaum, president of the
Westport, Connecticut-based company's feed products group.

"This is very concerning to us. This isn't something that happens to
us. We are very serious about food safety," Hohnbaum said. Mad cow
disease is only known to spread when cows eat feed containing brain
and other nerve tissue from infected cattle. Protein from cattle was
commonly added to cattle feed to speed growth until the ban largely
outlawed the practice.

Cattle tissue may have contaminated 2 feed ingredients given to dairy
cows -- Pro-Lak and Pro-Amino II -- made by H.J. Baker between August
2005 and June 2006. The 3rd of the recalled ingredients, Pro-Pak with
Porcine Meat and Bone, was mislabeled. It is used in poultry feed.

The company announced the recall in the wake of ongoing FDA
inspections of its Albertville, Alabama plant, Hohnbaum said. The
inspections have found manufacturing and clerical issues, he added.

The company shipped the ingredients to feed manufacturers and dairy
farms in the following states: Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi and Tennessee. The company
is notifying its customers of the voluntary recall. It does not know
how much of the feed ingredients it sold, Hohnbaum said.

On the Net:
Food and Drug Administration animal feed information:

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

[The company is already notifying its customers. Furthermore, the
company does not know how much feed was contaminated, so they are
likely being very cautious and notifying customers, although they may
not have had animals exposed.

It is likely the company does not know how much contamination each
batch of feed received.

Customers should be forewarned that even if an animal consumes some
of this feed, it does not mean it is sure to come down with Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). It takes a certain amount of
infective material being consumed as well as certain conditions
within the animal for BSE to develop.

What is intriguing about this event is that, though the FDA will fine
the feed manufacturer, on-farm mixing of feed that may contain
prohibited material does not find its way onto the FDA radar screen.
There have been multiple cases of farm-site feed mixing with
confirmation of prohibited material being in the feed, and the feed
being fed to cattle. When this apparent oversight was brought to the
attention of the FDA, the reply was that they [the FDA] did not
believe they had jurisdiction over the farm, only the manufacturers.
Since the FDA could not demonstrate a prion to a court of law, they
did not see how they could prosecute a case of farm-site feed mixing.

Clearly, had the international team that surveyed the situation in
the US during 2004 known of this approach, their recommendations may
well have been different.

Without adherence to the feeding rules, cases of BSE in the United
States will likely continue to occur on a sporadic basis. - Mod.TG]

[see also:
BSE, bovine - USA (WA) (16): new regulations 20040318.0747
BSE, bovine - USA: APHIS report 20040205.0426
BSE, bovine - USA (WA) (09): new regulations 20031230.3172]

ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that
are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
information, and of any statements or opinions based
thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
and its associated service providers shall not be held
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