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From: TSS ()
Subject: USDA: Much Still Unknown About Two US BSE Cases
Date: June 8, 2006 at 1:14 pm PST

6/8/2006 1:19:00 PM


USDA: Much Still Unknown About Two US BSE Cases

WASHINGTON (Dow Jones)--The U.S. Department of Agriculture now believes the only two native-born U.S. cows to contract mad-cow disease were infected with a little understood and rare "atypical" strain that throws into question how the animals were infected.

USDA Chief Veterinarian John Clifford told Dow Jones Newswires this week that the latest two cases of BSE in the U.S. - found in Alabama and Texas – are abnormal, differing from the common form of the disease found in Canada and the U.K.

Clifford also said USDA has no plans to change the way it safeguards the U.S. beef supply.

An internal USDA memo stated, "There is no evidence to justify any changes in surveillance methods, disease control, or public health measures already taken in the United States."

Clifford agreed, saying, "Until the science proves otherwise, we'll be treating all of these cases as BSE and the normal, typical BSE, and we still feel confident that the safeguards we have in place are effective."

USDA regulations ban beef from non-ambulatory, or "downer," animals from the human food supply as well as require that some bovine tissue - such as brain and spinal cord material - considered to be risky for carrying BSE infection be removed before processing.

The U.S. also guards against cattle infection by prohibiting the feeding of bovine material to cattle because of the belief that BSE is spread solely through contaminated feed.

But this "atypical" form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy found in the U.S. might not be spread through feed.

Clifford said he didn't know if the two U.S. cows were infected through contaminated feed - as most normal cases are - or whether they simply developed the disease spontaneously or by some other way.

There are different theories, Clifford said. "There may be spontaneous cases, but I can't say that there are or are not at this point in time."

Linda Detwiler, a consultant to major food companies and former Agriculture Department veterinary disease specialist, said, "There is so much that is unknown about the cases now."

There are several theories as to how cattle could develop an atypical form of BSE, if it even is BSE that the Alabama and Texas cows contracted, Detwiler said.

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, or TSE, is the umbrella neurological disease category that BSE - also called mad cow disease - falls under, together with the scrapie, traditionally found in sheep.

And one possibility, Detwiler said, is the cows could be contracting a form of sheep TSE, now believed to be transmissable to cattle.

Two things that do seem certain, she said, are that the atypical disease contracted by the two U.S. cows can transmit infection and it is detectable by current forms of testing.

She said French scientists have been successful in using atypical BSE to infect mice, but much is still unknown about transmissibility between cattle or if that is even possible.

The USDA memo said the abnormal BSE found in the Texas and Alabama cows "had different molecular characteristics (from normal BSE) that are similar to a few described cases in France."

Clifford, talking about the two infected native-born cows, said "there was abnormal prion protein present." And the cows' brains didn't have "the spongiform lesions that you would typically see" in the brains of a traditional BSE case.

"One important question," USDA said in the memo, "is whether the different types of atypical BSE are transmissible to cattle, and no such evaluations have been done."

The only traditional case of the more common variety of BSE found in the U.S. was discovered in Washington state in December 2003. That cow, according to USDA, was born and infected in Canada before being sent south to the U.S. Canadian and U.S. officials tracked down the source of infection for that cow and other Canadian animals to contaminated feed produced in western Canada.

But in regards to the native-born BSE cases, USDA said, "There are many unanswered questions about these unusual findings, and additional research is needed to help characterize the significance - or lack of significance - of any of these findings."

Source: Bill Tomson; Dow Jones Newswires; 202-646-0088; bill.tomson@dowjones.com


http://www.cattlenetwork.com/content.asp?contentid=43386


Greetings BSE-L et al,

Dr. Detwiler said ;


> And one possibility, Detwiler said, is the cows could be contracting a form of sheep TSE,

> now believed to be transmissable to cattle.


i don't understand this. we have known for eons that sheep scrapie strains are transmissible to the bovine by the non-forced oral consumption of scrapie tainted feed (USA it would be scrapie tainted, cwd tainted and a bit of TME tainted on top, and who knows about hofa tainted, but you get my drift), but i dont understand this, does Dr. Detwiler mean vertical and or horizontal i.e. lateral transmission i.e. maternal and or casual contact ??? i would like to add, the spontaneous theory of a natural field TSE has never been proven by anyone. transmission of the TSE agent by feed of tainted product has been proven time and time again. ...


thank you,
kind regards,
terry



Medical Sciences
Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Cristina Casalone *, Gianluigi Zanusso , Pierluigi Acutis *, Sergio Ferrari , Lorenzo Capucci , Fabrizio Tagliavini ¶, Salvatore Monaco ||, and Maria Caramelli *
*Centro di Referenza Nazionale per le Encefalopatie Animali, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via Bologna, 148, 10195 Turin, Italy; Department of Neurological and Visual Science, Section of Clinical Neurology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy; Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi, 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy; and ¶Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta," Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved December 23, 2003 (received for review September 9, 2003)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Human and animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be biochemically differentiated on the basis of the molecular mass of the protease-resistant PrPSc fragments and the degree of glycosylation. Epidemiological, molecular, and transmission studies strongly suggest that the single strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has infected humans, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The unprecedented biological properties of the BSE agent, which circumvents the so-called "species barrier" between cattle and humans and adapts to different mammalian species, has raised considerable concern for human health. To date, it is unknown whether more than one strain might be responsible for cattle TSE or whether the BSE agent undergoes phenotypic variation after natural transmission. Here we provide evidence of a second cattle TSE. The disorder was pathologically characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques, as opposed to the lack of amyloid deposition in typical BSE cases, and by a different pattern of regional distribution and topology of brain PrPSc accumulation. In addition, Western blot analysis showed a PrPSc type with predominance of the low molecular mass glycoform and a protease-resistant fragment of lower molecular mass than BSE-PrPSc. Strikingly, the molecular signature of this previously undescribed bovine PrPSc was similar to that encountered in a distinct subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.C. and G.Z. contributed equally to this work.

||To whom correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: salvatore.monaco@mail.univr.it.
www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0305777101

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1

Characterization of two distinct prion strains derived from bovine spongiform encephalopathy transmissions to inbred mice
Sarah E. Lloyd, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner, Jennifer Buckell, Sebastian Brandner, Jonathan D. F. Wadsworth and John Collinge


MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, London WC1N 3BG, UK


Correspondence
John Collinge
j.collinge@prion.ucl.ac.uk

Distinct prion strains can be distinguished by differences in incubation period, neuropathology and biochemical properties of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in inoculated mice. Reliable comparisons of mouse prion strain properties can only be achieved after passage in genetically identical mice, as host prion protein sequence and genetic background are known to modulate prion disease phenotypes. While multiple prion strains have been identified in sheep scrapie and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is thought to be caused by a single prion strain. Primary passage of BSE prions to different lines of inbred mice resulted in the propagation of two distinct PrPSc types, suggesting that two prion strains may have been isolated. To investigate this further, these isolates were subpassaged in a single line of inbred mice (SJL) and it was confirmed that two distinct prion strains had been identified. MRC1 was characterized by a short incubation time (110±3 days), a mono-glycosylated-dominant PrPSc type and a generalized diffuse pattern of PrP-immunoreactive deposits, while MRC2 displayed a much longer incubation time (155±1 days), a di-glycosylated-dominant PrPSc type and a distinct pattern of PrP-immunoreactive deposits and neuronal loss. These data indicate a crucial involvement of the host genome in modulating prion strain selection and propagation in mice. It is possible that multiple disease phenotypes may also be possible in BSE prion infection in humans and other animals.


http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/85/8/2471

Atypical cases of TSE in cases of TSE in
cattle and sheep cattle and sheep
H. De H. De Bosschere Bosschere
CODA/CERVA CODA/CERVA
Nat. Ref. Lab. Vet. Nat. Ref. Lab. Vet. TSEs TSEs
Belgium

http://www.var.fgov.be/pdf/1100_TSEDAY.pdf

USDA 2004 ENHANCED BSE SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AND HOW NOT TO FIND BSE CASES (OFFICIAL DRAFT OIG REPORT)

snip...


CATTLE With CNS Symptoms Were NOT Always Tested


snip...


Between FYs 2002 and 2004, FSIS condemned 680 cattle of all ages due to CNS symptoms. About 357 of these could be classified as adult. We could validate that ONLY 162 were tested for BSE (per APHIS records. ...

snip...

WE interviewed officials at five laboratories that test for rabies. Those officials CONFIRMED THEY ARE NOT REQUIRED TO SUBMIT RABIES-NEGATIVE SAMPLES TO APHIS FOR BSE TESTING. A South Dakota laboratory official said they were not aware they could submit rabies-negative samples to APHIS for BSE testing. A laboratory official in another State said all rabies-negative cases were not submitted to APHIS because BSE was ''NOT ON THEIR RADAR SCREEN." Officials from New York, Wisconsin, TEXAS, and Iowa advised they would NOT submit samples from animals they consider too young. Four of the five States contacted defined this age as 24 months; Wisconsin defined it as 30 months. TEXAS officials also advised that they do not always have sufficient tissue remaining to submit a BSE sample. ...

snip...


FULL TEXT 54 PAGES OF HOW NOT TO FIND BSE IN USA ;


http://www.house.gov/reform/min/pdfs_108_2/pdfs_inves/pdf_food_usda_mad_cow_july_13_ig_rep.pdf



HUMAN TSE USA 2005


Animal Prion Diseases Relevant to Humans (unknown types?)
Thu Oct 27, 2005 12:05
71.248.128.109


About Human Prion Diseases /
Animal Prion Diseases Relevant to Humans

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion
disease of cattle. Since 1986, when BSE was recognized,
over 180,000 cattle in the UK have developed the
disease, and approximately one to three million are
likely to have been infected with the BSE agent, most
of which were slaughtered for human consumption before
developing signs of the disease. The origin of the
first case of BSE is unknown, but the epidemic was
caused by the recycling of processed waste parts of
cattle, some of which were infected with the BSE agent
and given to other cattle in feed. Control measures
have resulted in the consistent decline of the epidemic
in the UK since 1992. Infected cattle and feed exported
from the UK have resulted in smaller epidemics in other
European countries, where control measures were applied
later.

Compelling evidence indicates that BSE can be
transmitted to humans through the consumption of prion
contaminated meat. BSE-infected individuals eventually
develop vCJD with an incubation time believed to be on
average 10 years. As of November 2004, three cases of
BSE have been reported in North America. One had been
imported to Canada from the UK, one was grown in
Canada, and one discovered in the USA but of Canadian
origin. There has been only one case of vCJD reported
in the USA, but the patient most likely acquired the
disease in the United Kingdom. If current control
measures intended to protect public and animal health
are well enforced, the cattle epidemic should be
largely under control and any remaining risk to humans
through beef consumption should be very small. (For
more details see Smith et al. British Medical Bulletin,
66: 185. 2003.)

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a prion disease of elk
and deer, both free range and in captivity. CWD is
endemic in areas of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska,
but new foci of this disease have been detected in
Nebraska, South Dakota, New Mexico, Wisconsin,
Mississippi Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Montana, and
Canada. Since there are an estimated 22 million elk and
deer in the USA and a large number of hunters who
consume elk and deer meat, there is the possibility
that CWD can be transmitted from elk and deer to
humans. As of November 2004, the NPDPSC has examined 26
hunters with a suspected prion disease. However, all of
them appeared to have either typical sporadic or
familial forms of the disease. The NPDPSC coordinates
with the Centers for Disease Control and state health
departments to monitor cases from CWD-endemic areas.
Furthermore, it is doing experimental research on CWD
transmissibility using animal models. (For details see
Sigurdson et al. British Medical Bulletin. 66: 199.
2003 and Belay et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases.
10(6): 977. 2004.)


http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/abouthpd-animal.html


SEE STEADY INCREASE IN SPORADIC CJD IN THE USA FROM
1997 TO 2004. SPORADIC CJD CASES TRIPLED, and that is
with a human TSE surveillance system that is terrible
flawed. in 1997 cases of the _reported_ cases of cjd
were at 54, to 163 _reported_ cases in 2004. see stats
here;

p.s. please note the 47 PENDING CASES to Sept. 2005

p.s. please note the 2005 Prion D. total 120(8)
8=includes 51 type pending, 1 TYPE UNKNOWN ???

p.s. please note sporadic CJD 2002(1) 1=3 TYPE UNKNOWN???

p.s. please note 2004 prion disease (6) 6=7 TYPE
UNKNOWN???


http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/resources-casereport.html


CWD TO HUMANS = sCJD ???


AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that
transmission of BSE to other species will invariably
present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.

snip...

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1991/01/04004001.pdf


> > >> Differences in tissue distribution could require new regulations
> > >> regarding specific risk material (SRM) removal.
> >
> > snip...end
> >
> > full text ;
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf
> >
> >
> > 3.57 The experiment which might have determined whether BSE and scrapie
> were
> > caused by the same agent (ie, the feeding of natural scrapie to cattle)
> was
> > never undertaken in the UK. It was, however, performed in the USA in
1979,
> > when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic
in
> > the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of
Agriculture
> in
> > Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE. 32 The findings of the
> > initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological
> > examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of
> the
> > CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the
> > Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of
> > Agriculture. 33 The results were not published at this point, since the
> > attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been
> > inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences
> > between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995.
Similar
> > studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie
> inocula
> > derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and
> from
> > different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease
> Centre.
> > 34 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie
> agent,
> > though pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of
> > brain lesions characteristic of BSE.
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm#820543
> >
> >
> >
> > The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or
> > neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr
> > Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of
the
> > project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United
> States
> > Department of Agriculture. 33
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1988/10/00001001.pdf
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm#820546
> >
> >
> >
> > The results were not published at this point, since the attempted
> > transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been
> inconclusive.
> > The results of the clinical and histological differences between
> > scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar
studies
> in
> > which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula
derived
> > from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from
> > different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease
> Centre.
> > 34 The
> > results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent,
> though
> > pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of brain
> > lesions characteristic of BSE.
> >
> > 3.58 There are several possible reasons why the experiment was not
> performed
> > in the UK. It had been recommended by Sir Richard Southwood (Chairman of
> the
> > Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) in his letter to the
> > Permanent Secretary of MAFF, Mr (now Sir) Derek Andrews, on 21 June
1988,
> 35
> > though it was not specifically recommended in the Working Party Report
or
> > indeed in the Tyrrell Committee Report (details of the Southwood Working
> > Party and the Tyrell Committee can be found in vol. 4: The Southwood
> Working
> > Party, 1988-89 and vol. 11: Scientists after Southwood respectively).
The
> > direct inoculation of scrapie into calves was given low priority,
because
> of
> > its high cost and because it was known that it had already taken place
in
> > the USA. 36 It was also felt that the results of such an experiment
would
> be
> > hard to interpret. While a negative result would be informative, a
> positive
> > result would need to demonstrate that when scrapie was transmitted to
> > cattle, the disease which developed in cattle was the same as BSE. 37
> Given
> > the large number of strains of scrapie and the possibility that BSE was
> one
> > of them, it would be necessary to transmit every scrapie strain to
cattle
> > separately, to test the hypothesis properly. Such an experiment would be
> > expensive. Secondly, as measures to control the epidemic took hold, the
> need
> > for the experiment from the policy viewpoint was not considered so
urgent.
> > It was felt that the results would be mainly of academic interest. 38
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm#820550
> >
> >
> > http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/chaptea3.htm
> >
> >
> >
> > UKBSEnvCJD only theory Singeltary et al 2006
> >
> >
> > http://www.microbes.info/forums/index.php?act=Attach&type=post&id=13
> >
> >
> > http://www.microbes.info/forums/index.php?showtopic=306
> >
> >
> >
> > CJD WATCH
> >
> > http://www.fortunecity.com/healthclub/cpr/349/part1cjd.htm
> >
> > CJD WATCH MESSAGE BOARD
> >
> > http://disc.server.com/Indices/167318.html
> >
> >
> > Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
> > P.O. Box 42
> > Bacliff, Texas USA 77518




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