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From: TSS ()
Subject: BSE UPDATE ALABAMA March 24, 2006
Date: March 25, 2006 at 10:15 am PST

March 24, 2006 - BSE Update
MONTGOMERY – Commissioner Ron Sparks and State Veterinarian Dr. Tony Frazier with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries (ADAI) and the USDA have provided an update on their ongoing joint investigation of the cow that died from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Alabama.

March 24, 2006 - BSE Update

Since the investigation began, the ADAI and the USDA have followed multiple leads in the traceback process. At this time, 13 locations and 32 movements of cattle have been examined with 27 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of locations and herds will continue. In addition, state and federal officials have confirmed that a black bull calf was born in 2005 to the index animal (the red cow). The calf was taken by the owner to a local stockyard in July 2005 where the calf died. The calf was disposed of in a local landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.

Without a premises or animal ID program in place, the traceback process to find the herd of origin of the index cow is time-consuming and difficult. It includes conducting interviews, reviewing of records and documents, and testing of cattle DNA. State and federal officials have discovered several herds of interest and they are planning to use DNA testing to determine DNA linkage between the index cow and the herds. Through the DNA testing of these herds, investigators will attempt to find a genetic path that could lead to the herd of origin. Commissioner Sparks stressed that the DNA testing being conducted on the herds is for genetic markers and is not a test for the disease BSE.

As part of the thorough investigative process, a large number of cattle may be tested in this phase and the number of herds included will continue to grow as the traceback progresses. Leads will be followed by state and federal officials until they are exhausted. Even when an index animal is traced to it’s birth herd, often cohorts of that animal are no longer in that herd. In addition, even if an animal’s cohort has been exposed to the same infective material in feed, the other animals will not necessarily contract BSE.

BSE is not a contagious disease that spreads animal to animal, or animal to human. BSE spreads in cattle through the consumption of feed containing specified risk material (brain and spinal cord) derived from BSE infected cattle. The United States banned the use of such protein supplements in cattle feed since 1997. Sparks says that beef consumption in this country is safe and there are measures in place to see that it continues to be safe. For example, downer animals are not allowed to enter commerce for human consumption and there is a ban on feeding ruminant derived protein to cattle.

http://www.agi.state.al.us/press_releases/march-24-2006---bse-update2?pn=2

Epidemiology Update March 23, 2006
As of today, 13 locations and 32 movements of cattle have been examined with
27 of those being substantially completed. Additional investigations of
locations and herds will continue. In addition, state and federal officials
have confirmed that a black bull calf was born in 2005 to the index animal
(the red cow). The calf was taken by the owner to a local stockyard in July
2005 where the calf died. The calf was appropriately disposed of in a local
landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/newsroom/hot_issues/bse/bse_al_epi-update.shtml


> The calf was appropriately disposed of in a local
> landfill and did not enter the human or animal food chain.


meanwhile, back at the ranch with larry, curly and mo heading up the USDA et al,
what would you expect, nothing less than shoot, shovel and shut the hell up.
no mad cow in USA, feed ban working, no civil war in Iraq either.


but what has past history shown us, evidently it has shown the USDA et al
nothing ;


Disposal of meat and bone meal (MBM) derived from specified risk material
(SRM) and over thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill
The Committee was asked to consider a quantitative risk assessment of the
disposal of meat and bone meal derived from specified risk material and over
thirty month scheme carcasses by landfill, prepared in response to a request
from the Committee at its June 1999 meeting.

The Committee was asked whether, in the light of the results of the risk
assessment, it held to its earlier published (June 1999) view that landfill
was an acceptable outlet for MBM of any origin, although it retained a
preference for incineration. The Committee reiterated that it had a strong
preference for incineration as the favoured route for the disposal of MBM
and were uneasy about the use of landfill for the disposal of this material.
If there were cases where incineration was not practical the Committee felt
it would be preferable for any material going to landfill to be
pressure-cooked first or possibly stored above ground prior to incineration.

http://www.seac.gov.uk/summaries/summ_0700.htm


Disposal of BSE suspect carcases
It is the Department's policy to dispose of BSE suspects by incineration
wherever feasible. No BSE suspect carcases have been landfilled since 1991.

http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/bse/publichealth/notification.html#disp


OPINION ON

THE USE OF BURIAL FOR DEALING WITH ANIMAL

CARCASSES AND OTHER ANIMAL MATERIALS THAT

MIGHT CONTAIN BSE/TSE

ADOPTED BY THE

SCIENTIFIC STEERING COMMITTEE

MEETING OF 16-17 JANUARY 2003

The details of the SSC’s evaluation are provided in the attached report. The
SSC

concludes as follows:

(1) The term “burial” includes a diversity of disposal conditions. Although
burial is

widely used for disposal of waste the degradation process essential for
BSE/TSE

infectivity reduction is very difficult to control. The extent to which such
an

infectivity reduction can occur as a consequence of burial is poorly
characterised.

It would appear to be a slow process in various circumstances.

(2) A number of concerns have been identified including potential for
groundwater

contamination, dispersal/transmission by birds/animals/insects, accidental

uncovering by man.

(3) In the absence of any new data the SSC confirms its previous opinion
that animal

material which could possibly be contaminated with BSE/TSEs, burial poses a

risk except under highly controlled conditions (e.g., controlled landfill).

SNIP...

4. CONCLUSION

In the absence of new evidence the opinion of the SSC “Opinion on Fallen
Stock”

(SSC 25th June 1999) must be endorsed strongly that land burial of all
animals and

material derived from them for which there is a possibility that they could

incorporate BSE/TSEs poses a significant risk. Only in exceptional
circumstances

where there could be a considerable delay in implementing a safe means of
disposal

should burial of such materials be considered. Guidelines should be made
available

to aid on burial site selection.

4 PAGES;

http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/ssc/out309_en.pdf


During the 2001 outbreak of FMD in the UK, the

Department of Health prepared a rapid qualitative

assessment of the potential risks to human health

associated with various methods of carcass disposal

(UK Department of Health, 2001c). The most

relevant hazards to human health resulting from

burial were identified as bacteria pathogenic to

humans, water-borne protozoa, and BSE. The main

potential route identified was contaminated water

supplies, and the report generally concluded that an

engineered licensed landfill would always be

preferable to unlined burial. In general terms, the

findings of the qualitative assessment relative to

biological agents are summarized in Table 13.

TABLE 13. Potential health hazards and associated pathways of exposure
resulting from landfill or burial of

animal carcasses (adapted from UK Department of Health, 2001c).

PLEASE SEE TABLE AT;

http://www.k-state.edu/projects/fss/research/books/carcassdispfiles/PDF%20Files/CH%201%20-%20Burial.pdf


PART 2

Rendering and fixed-facility incineration were

preferred, but the necessary resources were not

immediately available and UK officials soon learned

that the capacity would only cover a portion of the

disposal needs. Disposal in commercial landfills was

seen as the next best environmental solution, but

legal, commercial, and local community problems

limited landfill use. With these limitations in mind,

pyre burning was the actual initial method used but

was subsequently discontinued following increasing

public, scientific, and political concerns. Mass burial

and on-farm burial were last on the preferred

method list due to the complicating matter of bovine

spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and the risk posed

to groundwater (Hickman & Hughes, 2002).


http://www.k-state.edu/projects/fss/research/books/carcassdispfiles/PDF%20Files/Introduction%20to%20Part%202%20-%20Cross-Cutting%20&%20Policy%20Issues.pdf


Carcase disposal:

A Major Problem of the

2001 FMD Outbreak

Gordon Hickman and Neil Hughes, Disposal Cell,

FMD Joint Co-ordination Centre, Page Street

snip...


http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/svj/fmd/pages27-40.pdf


3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach
was to accord it a _very low profile indeed_. Dr. A Thiermann showed
the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and thought
this was a fanatical incident to be _avoided_ in the US _at all costs_...

snip...


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf


PAUL BROWN SCRAPIE SOIL TEST


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/seac07/tab03.pdf

Some unofficial information from a source on the inside looking out -

Confidential!!!!

As early as 1992-3 there had been long studies conducted on small
pastures containing scrapie infected sheep at the sheep research station
associated with the Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Whether these are documented...I don't know. But personal recounts both
heard and recorded in a daily journal indicate that leaving the pastures
free and replacing the topsoil completely at least 2 feet of thickness
each year for SEVEN years....and then when very clean (proven scrapie
free) sheep were placed on these small pastures.... the new sheep also
broke out with scrapie and passed it to offspring. I am not sure that TSE
contaminated ground could ever be free of the agent!!
A very frightening revelation!!!

----------

more here ;

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s018.pdf


INCINERATION TEMPS

Requirements include:

a. after burning to the range of 800 to 1000*C to eliminate smell;

well heck, this is just typical public relations fear factor control.
do you actually think they would spend the extra costs for fuel,
for such extreme heat, just to eliminate smell, when they spread
manure all over your veg's. i think not. what they really meant were
any _TSE agents_.

b. Gas scrubbing to eliminate smoke -- though steam may be omitted;

c. Stacks to be fitted with grit arreaters;

snip...

1.2 Visual Imact

It is considered that the requirement for any carcase incinerator
disign would be to ensure that the operations relating to the reception,
storage and decepitation of diseased carcasses must not be publicly
visible and that any part of a carcase could not be removed or
interfered with by animals or birds.

full text;


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1989/04/03006001.pdf


http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/ssc/out311_en.pdf

also, if one thinks that cattle don't become infected with BSE under 30 months, well that simplys is not correct.

youngest to date is 20 months, with many more in the 20 to 30 month range not only in the UK but Japan as well. ...

Kind regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
Bacliff, Texas USA





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