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From: TSS ()
Subject: Elk May Blaze the Animal ID Trail in Texas from fear of CWD
Date: December 7, 2005 at 10:17 am PST

News Release

Texas Animal Health Commission

Box l2966 * Austin, Texas 78711 * (800) 550-8242 * FAX (512) 719-0719

Bob Hillman, DVM * Executive Director

For info, contact Carla Everett, information officer, at 1-800-550-8242, ext. 710,

or ceverett@tahc.state.tx.us

For immediate release---

Elk May Blaze the Animal ID Trail in Texas

Elk being moved in Texas will sport a radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tag beginning after the first of

the year, if commissioners for the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) adopt regulations proposed for

tracking the animals for disease control, including chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal brain disorder. About

300 producers in the state own elk, which are classified as exotic livestock in Texas and are under the jurisdiction

of the TAHC, the state’s livestock and poultry health regulatory agency. Premises and animal identification and

recordkeeping requirements will extend to all of the animals’ movements in commerce.

“We’ve worked closely with elk breeders associations, including the Exotic Wildlife Association, South Central

Elk Breeders Association and the North American Elk Breeders, to develop the proposed regulations that will be

presented to the commissioners for final approval at their meeting December 6 in Austin,” said Dr. Bob Hillman,

executive director for the TAHC and Texas’ state veterinarian. “The regulations were developed to enhance

disease monitoring with minimal impact on marketing.”

“Identification and recordkeeping requirements will be extremely useful for quickly tracing elk movements, if

chronic wasting disease (CWD) — or other diseases, such as brucellosis or tuberculosis — are detected in the

animals, “he said. “Nationally, the implementation of animal identification for exotic livestock is ‘way down the

line,’ but the Texas industry saw a need to be able to track elk movement now, so these animals will blaze the

trail in the state for other species.”

The proposed regulations will require owners to obtain a unique premises identification number for their ranches

prior to importing elk, moving them to market, slaughter, another ranch or onto other premises within the state.

Furthermore, receiving sites within the state also are to be identified. Dr. Hillman said producers of all livestock

species can easily obtain the unique seven-character premises identification number.

“Producers can go online, call us or request a paper application to obtain their premises identification number.

The information collected will be accessed and used only by state and federal animal health officials for disease

surveillance, control and eradication purposes,” explained Dr. Hillman. Premises registration can be completed

online at http://www.tahc.state.tx.us or by calling the TAHC at 1-800-550-8242.

“HB 1361, passed during the last legislative session, enables the TAHC to develop an identification program

consistent with the National Animal Identification System, and provides authority to charge a fee for the premises

registration. Until 2005, the TAHC was one of the few state regulatory agencies that did not charge fees for

services. An industry committee, after looking at many options, determined a $10 per year fee for premises

registration is the most equitable way to support TAHC programs,” Dr. Hillman noted.

Under the proposed elk regulations, the premises identification fee, to be paid biennially, is slated to become

effective January 1, 2006, for elk producers who move their animals in Texas commerce. The fee will not be

charged retroactively for premises registered prior to that date. However, as premises registration are renewed

every two years, the $10 per year fee will be applicable. Fees for premises registration for other livestock species

are expected to be in effect in spring 2006. As of late November, more than 4,000 of the state’s 200,000 premises

have been registered.

---more--

Add one/Elk to Blaze Animal ID Trail in Texas

If the elk regulations are adopted, Texas producers must individually identify elk with a permanent, official

electronic ear tag prior to moving them from their premises. A movement report then must be submitted to the

TAHC within 24 hours, providing the owner’s name, and the age, gender and individual identification device

number for each animal moved, source of the animal and the premises identifications for the herd of origin and

destination site. The producer is to maintain a copy of the records for at least five years.

“Pasture-to-pasture movement of elk can be allowed without the electronic ear tag, provided the producer owns

both sites and has them under a single premises registration,” explained Dr. Hillman. “However, the owner must

first obtain a written permit from the TAHC and fulfill the reporting requirements.”

The proposed regulations urge producers to have elk tested for CWD when they die or are harvested. Deer and

elk that exhibit clinical signs of CWD, such as emaciation, behavioral changes and excessive salivation always

should be reported to the TAHC, so brain tissue can be collected and tested. Although the disease has been

detected in several states in mule deer, white-tailed deer and elk, and in one instance, a moose, the Centers for

Disease Control (CDC) do not associate CWD with any known human health effects. More than 9,413 samples

from free-ranging or captive deer and elk in Texas have been tested, with no CWD detected.

While mule deer and white-tailed deer also are susceptible to CWD, these animals come under separate

identification and health regulations, explained Dr. Hillman. Mule deer in far west Texas and white-tailed deer

statewide are classified as native wildlife, and to own them, producers must obtain a scientific breeder permit

from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD), which has regulatory authority over these species.

Scientific breeders must meet identification and testing requirements established by the TPWD.

“We cannot say we don’t have CWD, if we don’t monitor susceptible species and test for it,” Dr. Hillman

stressed. “If we do find CWD in Texas, appropriate action must be taken to control and eradicate the disease.

Hunting, wildlife and exotic hoofstock are industries extremely important to the livelihood of Texas. It’s only

reasonable to take precautions to ensure these animals are healthy.”

---30--

http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/news/pr/2005/2005Nov_ElkAnimalID.pdf

Chronic Wasting Disease ("CWD")
TAHC Information Resources:
CWD Fact Sheet (July 2002)
Recommendations for Disposing of Taxidermy and Processing Waste from Deer(June 2005)
CWD Sampling Maps
Three Year Summary of Hunter-Kill CWD Sampling (as of August 31, 2005)
TAHC CWD Monitoring Program Information
CWD Sample Submission and Costs
Factsheet For Producers Enrolling in the Complete Herd Monitoring Program


http://www.tahc.state.tx.us/animal_health/diseases/cwd/cwd.shtml



From: TSS ()
Subject: CWD TWO NEW CASES NEAR WHITE SANDS MISSLE RANGE NEW MEXICO
Date: June 27, 2005 at 4:43 pm PST

New Mexico Department of Game and Fish

Contact: Dan Williams, (505) 476-8004

dan.williams@state.nm.us

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE, JUNE 24, 2005:

TWO MULE DEER TEST POSITIVE FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

ANGLER LANDS STATE RECORD BLUE CATFISH AT ELEPHANT BUTTE LAKE

TWO MULE DEER TEST POSITIVE FOR CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

SANTA FE – Two mule deer captured in the Organ Mountains as part of an ongoing research project near White

Sands Missile Range have tested positive for chronic wasting disease (CWD), a fatal neurological disease that

attacks the brains of infected deer and elk, the Department of Game and Fish announced.

The number of confirmed CWD cases in New Mexico now stands at 11 since 2002, when the disease was first

confirmed in a deer found near the eastern foothills of the Organ Mountains. All 11 CWD-infected deer were found

in the same general area of southern New Mexico. The origin of the disease in New Mexico remains unknown.

The carcasses of the infected deer will be incinerated, said Kerry Mower, the Department’s lead wildlife disease

biologist.

Chronic wasting disease causes animals to become emaciated, display abnormal behavior, lose bodily functions

and die. The disease has been found in wild deer and elk, and in captive deer and elk, in eight states and two

Canadian provinces. There currently is no evidence of CWD being transmitted to humans or livestock.

Mower said the most recent CWD-positive deer showed no obvious physical signs of having the disease. They

were captured in April 2005 and tested as part of a 3-year-old research project studying deer population dynamics

in southern New Mexico. More than 140 deer have been captured alive and tested for the study, in which

researchers hope to find the cause of a 10-year decline in the area deer population. Study participants include the

Department of Game and Fish, the U.S. Army at White Sands Missile Range and Fort Bliss, Bureau of Land

Management, U.S. Geological Survey at New Mexico State University, and San Andres National Wildlife Refuge.

Hunters can assist the Department in its CWD research and prevention efforts by bringing their fresh, legally

harvested deer or elk head to an area office, where officers will remove the brain stem for testing. Participants will

be eligible for drawings for an oryx hunt on White Sands Missile Range and a trophy elk hunt on the Valle Vidal.

For more information about the drawing and chronic wasting disease, visit the Department web site at

www.wildlife.state.nm.us.

http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/publications/press_releases/documents/0624CWDandcatfish.pdf

SEE MAP ;

http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/conservation/disease/cwd/documents/cwdmap.pdf

Greetings list members,


I am deeply concerned with these CWD mad deer so close to the Texas border. WHAT keeps them from crossing the border to Texas ??? IF these illegal aliens can so easily cross our borders, why not these infected deer? maybe we should get these minute men to start watching for mad deer coming in to Texas from New Mexico.

I mentioned my concerns several other times before;


-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Current status of CWD testing in Texas
Date: Tue, 10 May 2005 09:09:47 -0500
From: "kschwaus"
To:


Mr. Singeltary,


I was asked to provide you with the following information. If you have any other questions regarding CWD sampling in Texas, please do not hesitate to give me a call. My office number is below.


Below I have included a chart showing CWD samples that have been tested since the fall of 2002 through the present at the eco-region level. The second chart shows the totals on a given year. The unknown location samples come from private individuals sending in samples directly to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab (TVMDL). Due to the confidentiality laws that the TVMDL operates under, they are unable to provide TPWD with the location of those samples.


Region
Population Estimate

Sampling from Fall 2002 to Present ..............

snip...

full text ;

http://www.vegsource.com/talk/madcow/messages/94685.html

About Human Prion Diseases /
Animal Prion Diseases Relevant to Humans

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a prion disease of cattle. Since 1986, when BSE was recognized, over 180,000 cattle in the UK have developed the disease, and approximately one to three million are likely to have been infected with the BSE agent, most of which were slaughtered for human consumption before developing signs of the disease. The origin of the first case of BSE is unknown, but the epidemic was caused by the recycling of processed waste parts of cattle, some of which were infected with the BSE agent and given to other cattle in feed. Control measures have resulted in the consistent decline of the epidemic in the UK since 1992. Infected cattle and feed exported from the UK have resulted in smaller epidemics in other European countries, where control measures were applied later.

Compelling evidence indicates that BSE can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of prion contaminated meat. BSE-infected individuals eventually develop vCJD with an incubation time believed to be on average 10 years. As of November 2004, three cases of BSE have been reported in North America. One had been imported to Canada from the UK, one was grown in Canada, and one discovered in the USA but of Canadian origin. There has been only one case of vCJD reported in the USA, but the patient most likely acquired the disease in the United Kingdom. If current control measures intended to protect public and animal health are well enforced, the cattle epidemic should be largely under control and any remaining risk to humans through beef consumption should be very small. (For more details see Smith et al. British Medical Bulletin, 66: 185. 2003.)

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a prion disease of elk and deer, both free range and in captivity. CWD is endemic in areas of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, but new foci of this disease have been detected in Nebraska, South Dakota, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Mississippi Kansas, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Montana, and Canada. Since there are an estimated 22 million elk and deer in the USA and a large number of hunters who consume elk and deer meat, there is the possibility that CWD can be transmitted from elk and deer to humans. As of November 2004, the NPDPSC has examined 26 hunters with a suspected prion disease. However, all of them appeared to have either typical sporadic or familial forms of the disease. The NPDPSC coordinates with the Centers for Disease Control and state health departments to monitor cases from CWD-endemic areas. Furthermore, it is doing experimental research on CWD transmissibility using animal models. (For details see Sigurdson et al. British Medical Bulletin. 66: 199. 2003 and Belay et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10(6): 977. 2004.)

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/abouthpd-animal.html

SEE STEADY INCREASE IN SPORADIC CJD IN THE USA FROM 1997 TO 2004. SPORADIC CJD CASES TRIPLED, and that is with a human TSE surveillance system that is terrible flawed. in 1997 cases of the _reported_ cases of cjd were at 54, to 163 _reported_ cases in 2004. see stats here;

p.s. please note the 47 PENDING CASES to Sept. 2005

p.s. please note the 2005 Prion D. total 120(8) 8=includes 51 type pending, 1 TYPE UNKNOWN ???

p.s. please note sporadic CJD 2002(1) 1=3 TYPE UNKNOWN???

p.s. please note 2004 prion disease (6) 6=7 TYPE UNKNOWN???

http://www.cjdsurveillance.com/resources-casereport.html

CWD TO HUMANS = sCJD ???

AS implied in the Inset 25 we must not _ASSUME_ that
transmission of BSE to other species will invariably
present pathology typical of a scrapie-like disease.

snip...

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/yb/1991/01/04004001.pdf

ATYPICAL TSEs in USA CATTLE AND SHEEP ?

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/sc/seac17/tab03.pdf

3. Prof. A. Robertson gave a brief account of BSE. The US approach
was to accord it a _very low profile indeed_. Dr. A Thiermann showed
the picture in the ''Independent'' with cattle being incinerated and
thought this was a fanatical incident to be _avoided_ in the US _at
all costs_...

snip...

PAGE 25

Transmission Studies

Mule deer transmissions of CWD were by intracerebral inoculation and
compared with natural cases resulted in a more rapidly
progressive clinical disease with repeated episodes of synocopy ending
in coma. One control animal became affected, it is believed through
contamination of inoculam (?saline). Further CWD transmissions were
carried out by Dick Marsh into ferret, mink and squirrel monkey.
Transmission occurred in all of these species with the shortest
incubation period in the ferret.

http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/mb/m11b/tab01.pdf

Aguzzi warns of CWD danger

The TSE family of diseases also includes chronic wasting disease (CWD)
in deer, a condition that has spread in the US in recent years (Nature
416, 569; 2002). Speaking at the Days of Molecular Medicine conference
in La Jolla in March, prion expert Adriano Aguzzi issued a strong
warning against underestimating this form of TSE.

"For more than a decade, the US has by-and-large considered mad cows
to be an exquisitely European problem. The perceived need to protect
US citizens from this alien threat has even prompted the deferral of
blood donors from Europe," he said. "Yet the threat-from-within
posed by CWD needs careful consideration, since the evidence that CWD
is less dangerous to humans than BSE is less-than-complete. Aguzzi
went on to point out that CWD is arguably the most mysterious of all
prion diseases.

"Its horizontal spread among the wild population is exceedingly
efficient, and appears to have reached a prevalence unprecedented even
by BSE in the UK at its peak. The pathogenesis of CWD, therefore,
deserves a vigorous research effort. Europeans also need to think
about this problem, and it would be timely and appropriate to increase
CWD surveillance in Europe too." Aguzzi has secured funding from the
National Institutes of Health to investigate CWD, and the effort will
be lead by Christina Sigurdson in his department at the University of
Zurich. KAREN BIRMINGHAM, LONDON

This quote from Dr. Gambetti is especially significant since he is the
rather cautious TSE researcher under contract with the Centers for Disease
Control to examine the brains of individuals who have died of CJD.
-----------------

Pierluigi Gambetti, director of the National Prion Disease Pathology
Surveillance Center at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland,
said all deer should be tested for chronic wasting disease before any
processing is done.

"There is no way around it," he said. "Nobody should touch that meat
unless it has been tested."
--------------------------------------


Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans

Ermias D. Belay,*Comments
Ryan A.
Maddox,* Elizabeth S. Williams, Michael W. Miller,! Pierluigi
Gambetti,§ and Lawrence B. Schonberger*
*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;
University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA; !Colorado Division of
Wildlife, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA; and §Case Western Reserve
University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Suggested citation for this article: Belay ED, Maddox RA, Williams
ES, Miller MW, Gambetti P, Schonberger LB. Chronic wasting disease
and potential transmission to humans. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on
the Internet]. 2004 Jun [date cited]. Available from:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no6/03-1082.htm

snip...


Conclusions

The lack of evidence of a link between CWD transmission and unusual
cases of CJD, despite several epidemiologic investigations, and the
absence of an increase in CJD incidence in Colorado and Wyoming suggest
that the risk, if any, of transmission of CWD to humans is low. Although
the in vitro studies indicating inefficient conversion of human prion
protein by CWD-associated prions raise the possibility of low-level
transmission of CWD to humans, no human cases of prion disease with
strong evidence of a link with CWD have been identified. However, the
transmission of BSE to humans and the resulting vCJD indicate that,
provided sufficient exposure, the species barrier may not completely
protect humans from animal prion diseases. Because CWD has occurred in a
limited geographic area for decades, an adequate number of people may
not have been exposed to the CWD agent to result in a clinically
recognizable human disease. The level and frequency of human exposure to
the CWD agent may increase with the spread of CWD in the United States.
Because the number of studies seeking evidence for CWD transmission to
humans is limited, more epidemiologic and laboratory studies should be
conducted to monitor the possibility of such transmissions. Studies
involving transgenic mice expressing human and cervid prion protein are
in progress to further assess the potential for the CWD agent to cause
human disease. Epidemiologic studies have also been initiated to
identify human cases of prion disease among persons with an increased
risk for exposure to potentially CWD-infected deer or elk meat (47
). If such cases
are identified, laboratory data showing similarities of the etiologic
agent to that of the CWD agent would strengthen the conclusion for a
causal link. Surveillance for human prion diseases, particularly in
areas where CWD has been detected, remains important to effectively
monitor the possible transmission of CWD to humans. Because of the long
incubation period associated with prion diseases, convincing negative
results from epidemiologic and experimental laboratory studies would
likely require years of follow-up. In the meantime, to minimize the risk
for exposure to the CWD agent, hunters should consult with their state
wildlife agencies to identify areas where CWD occurs and continue to
follow advice provided by public health and wildlife agencies. Hunters
should avoid eating meat from deer and elk that look sick or test
positive for CWD. They should wear gloves when field-dressing carcasses,
bone-out the meat from the animal, and minimize handling of brain and
spinal cord tissues. As a precaution, hunters should avoid eating deer
and elk tissues known to harbor the CWD agent (e.g., brain, spinal cord,
eyes, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes) from areas where CWD has been
identified.

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no6/03-1082.htm

Q. Is the disease transmissible to humans?
A. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has issued this
statement: "It is generally prudent to avoid consuming food derived from
any animal with evidence of a TSE. To date, there is no evidence that
CWD has been transmitted or can be transmitted to humans under natural
conditions. However, there is not yet strong evidence that such
transmissions could not occur. To further assess the possibility that
the CWD agent might occasionally cause disease in humans, additional
epidemiologic and laboratory
studies could be helpful. Such studies include molecular
characterization and strain typing of the agents causing CWD in deer and
elk and CJD in potentially exposed patients. Ongoing national
surveillance for CJD and other neurological cases will remain important
for continuing to assess the risk, if any, of CWD transmission to humans."

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/fsheet_faq_notice/faq_ahcwd.html

From: TSS ()
Subject: First ever study to investigate impact of chronic wasting disease on humans
Date: November 26, 2005 at 6:06 pm PST

First ever study to investigate impact of chronic wasting disease on humans

By Gail Glover


Researchers at Binghamton University have a first-ever opportunity to determine if Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in deer can be spread to humans who ingest “infected” meat.

Ralph M. Garruto, professor of biomedical anthropology at Binghamton University, State University of New York is heading up a study to monitor the health implications of a group of people who are known to have consumed venison infected with CWD. Recently discovered in both wild and captive deer herds in New York, CWD is similar to mad cow disease in that it concentrates in the spinal cord and brain, and is caused by a virtually indestructible mutated protein called a prion.

“We don’t know if CWD can be transmitted to humans,” said Garruto. “So this group, some of whom we know for sure ate infected meat, offers us a unique opportunity. I’m hoping the study will allow us to determine conclusively if this disease can affect humans in the same way mad cow disease has been shown to cause neurological disease in those who consume infected beef.”

The study focuses on a group of people who attended a sportmen’s feast in Verona, NY, earlier this year. It is known that at least some of the attendees, all of whom were offered a variety of entree choices, consumed venison from a deer infected with CWD. Upon hearing of the dinner, Garruto approached the Oneida County Health Department (OCHD) to determine if they would assist in a scientific examination of the people who ate the meat.

“Although not everyone involved is particularly concerned or fearful, it is important for us to protect the health of all county residents,’ said Ken Fanelli, OCHD representative. “Professor Garruto’s study is a proactive response to determining what, if any, will be the long-term health effects, which is one of our most important responsibilities.”

Over 50 participants have already signed up to be part of the study that will involve an initial interview and completion of a questionnaire to help assess risk, including the role played by individuals at the dinner, what they ate, their place of residence, occupation, medical history and other activities. The study will monitor the health of the participants over a period of six years. No invasive testing will be performed and identities will be kept strictly confidential.

“The people who take part in this project can be assured that every measure will be taken to ensure their privacy,’ said Garruto. “Their contribution is vital to the success of this ‘first of its kind’ research that may hold world-wide significance in the study of CWD and similar prion diseases.”

CWD was first discovered in Colorado in 1967 and has since been documented in several Rocky Mountain and Midwest states. This year, New York State became the first state west of the Mississippi to report CWD in both privately owned and wild deer herds found in parts of Oneida County. Most recently in September, West Virginia reported its first cases of the disease. How the disease is spread from deer-to-deer and how it may impact the environment in which infected animals graze is unclear.

“We’re looking at an issue that could have multiple impacts,’ said Garruto. “Human health and keeping the food supply safe is of primary concern. But we also have to monitor how to keep this epidemic from spreading among deer and across species, from deer to cattle, both of which could have huge economic as well as health implications.”

Garruto notes that although a prion disease appears to be transmitted through direct animal-to-animal contact and/or indirect exposure, including contaminated water, soil and brouze by saliva, urine, and feces, it is still unclear as to how it’s transmitted.

“CWD demands a lot more attention than it’s been getting,” says Garruto. “Too little research has been done so far to be sure humans can’t contract the disease and we do not know if transmission from deer to cattle who share the same grazing land is possible. This is an important missing link as cow to human cross-species transmission does take place, evidenced by the mad cow and variant Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease epidemics in Europe. This study will give us some solid conclusions and allow us determine how to manage the risks.”


Researchers at Binghamton University have a first-ever opportunity to determine if Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in deer can be spread to humans who eat "infected" meat.

Ralph M. Garruto, a professor of biomedical anthropology, is heading up a study to monitor the health implications of a group of people who are known to have consumed venison infected with CWD. Recently discovered in both wild and captive deer herds in New York, CWD is similar to mad cow disease in that it concentrates in the spinal cord and brain, and is caused by a virtually indestructible mutated protein called a prion. "We don't know if CWD can be transmitted to humans," Garruto said. "So having a group that we know for sure ate infected meat offers us a unique opportunity. I'm hoping the study will allow us to determine conclusively if this disease can affect humans in the same way mad cow disease has been shown to cause neurological disease in those who consume infected beef."

The study focuses on a group of people who attended a feast in Verona earlier this year and who might have consumed venison from a deer infected with CWD. Upon hearing of the dinner, Garruto approached the Oneida County Health Department (OCHD) to determine if officials there would assist in a scientific examination of the people who ate the meat. "Although not everyone involved is particularly concerned or fearful, it is important for us to protect the health of all county residents," said Ken Fanelli, an OCHD representative. "Professor Garruto's study is a proactive response to determining what, if any, will be the long-term health effects, which is one of our most important responsibilities." More than 50 people have signed up to be part of the study, which will involve an interview and questionnaire to help assess risk, including the role played by individuals at the dinner, what they ate, their place of residence, occupation, medical history and other activities. The study will monitor the health of the participants over six years. No invasive testing will be performed and identities will be kept confidential. "The people who take part in this project can be assured that every measure will be taken to ensure their privacy," Garruto said. "Their contribution is vital to the success of this 'first of its kind' research that may hold world-wide significance in the study of CWD and similar prion diseases."

CWD was first discovered in Colorado in 1967 and has since been documented in several Rocky Mountain and Midwest states. This year, New York became the first state west of the Mississippi to report CWD in both privately owned and wild deer herds found in parts of Oneida County. How the disease is spread from deer to deer and how it may impact the environment in which infected animals graze is unclear. "We're looking at an issue that could have multiple impacts," Garruto said. "Human health and keeping the food supply safe is of primary concern. But we also have to monitor how to keep this epidemic from spreading among deer and across species, from deer to cattle, both of which could have huge economic as well as health implications."


http://research.binghamton.edu/discovere/discovere%20files/TopStories/ChronicWaste.htm


> The study will monitor the health of the

> participants over a period of six years


this is not long enough due to the incubation period.

it would be interesting to know more about this study, i.e. consumption, dose etc. just what the feast consisted of, just meat, or did any have organs/srms, the gutting and cleaning of this deer, where this took place, by whom, and what else was cut up there and where did that go. any cuts and abrasions etc. if any of these participants in this feast went on later to have medical procedures, gave blood, dental, etc. how they plan to follow this? i would like to know more about the pathology of the deer they feasted on too, that might be interesting as well?


TSS


Coexistence of multiple PrPSc types in individuals with

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Magdalini Polymenidou, Katharina Stoeck, Markus Glatzel, Martin Vey, Anne Bellon, and Adriano Aguzzi

Summary

Background The molecular typing of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is based on the size and glycoform

ratio of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPSc), and on PRNP haplotype. On digestion with proteinase K, type 1 and

type 2 PrPSc display unglycosylated core fragments of 21 kDa and 19 kDa, resulting from cleavage around amino

acids 82 and 97, respectively.

Methods We generated anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies to epitopes immediately preceding the differential proteinase

K cleavage sites. These antibodies, which were designated POM2 and POM12, recognise type 1, but not type 2, PrPSc.

Findings We studied 114 brain samples from 70 patients with sporadic CJD and three patients with variant CJD.

Every patient classified as CJD type 2, and all variant CJD patients, showed POM2/POM12 reactivity in the

cerebellum and other PrPSc-rich brain areas, with a typical PrPSc type 1 migration pattern.

Interpretation The regular coexistence of multiple PrPSc types in patients with CJD casts doubts on the validity of

electrophoretic PrPSc mobilities as surrogates for prion strains, and questions the rational basis of current CJD

classifications.


snip...


The above results set the existing CJD classifications

into debate and introduce interesting questions about

human CJD types. For example, do human prion types

exist in a dynamic equilibrium in the brains of affected

individuals? Do they coexist in most or even all CJD

cases? Is the biochemically identified PrPSc type simply

the dominant type, and not the only PrPSc species?


http://neurology.thelancet.com Published online October 31, 2005

TSS




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