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From: TSS ()
Subject: Re: Investigation Results of Texas Cow That Tested Positive for BSE Aug. 30, 2005 [FONG SYNDROME or FONG EFFECT]
Date: August 30, 2005 at 11:10 am PST

In Reply to: Re: Investigation Results of Texas Cow That Tested Positive for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Aug. 30, 2005 posted by TSS on August 30, 2005 at 10:52 am:



Friday, July 29, 2005

Ames lab to take over testing for mad cow disease
Published: 07/29/2005 3:52 PM

By: Associated Press - Associated Press

AMES, IA - Scientists at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories here soon will begin conducting their own Western blot tests, eliminating the need to travel to Weybridge, England, when initial rapid testing detects mad cow disease.

"I think the change is good because we're more likely to know exactly what we're dealing with on each case," said Dr. Randall Levings, director of the labs.

The change is a response to an order from U.S. Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns.

"We took those as our marching orders," Levings said.

Mad cow disease, formally known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE, attacks a cow's nervous system. It is characterized by spongelike holes in the brain, the result of misshapen proteins called prions that kill brain cells.

The only way it is known to spread is by cattle eating infected brain and nerve tissue from other cows. That's why the government in 1997 banned the use of cattle feed that contains remnants of other cows. Of the three cases of mad cow confirmed in the United States, all three cows were born before the feed ban, Levings said.

Since January 2004, the government has tested more than 400,000 cows for the disease, using a rapid screening test and a test known immunohistochemistry, or IHC.

Rapid testing of a sample involves removing normal proteins and adding chemicals that bind to the abnormal proteins, making them visible. The IHC test involves staining paper-thin brain tissue samples to highlight the abnormal protein.

The Western blot test, conducted at Weybridge destroys normal proteins in the brain, leaving only the abnormal prions.

In June, the nation's Office of Inspector General ordered a review of the Ames lab's testing procedures after a sample last fall tested positive in England, but negative in Ames.

A rapid test on the sample in Ames detected the presence of BSE, but the following IHC test was negative. Ames workers also relayed the results of the test, but did not complete formal paperwork.

A version of mad cow disease, known as variant Creutzfeld-Jakob, has killed about 150 people worldwide, most of them in Britain, where there was an outbreak in the 1990s.

"We're taking all of the right steps," Levings said. "It would not be a risk to human or animal health in this country. It's not high. It's very, very low."

SO, Johann's/GW et al have perfected the BSE/TSE testing protocols and they don't need anyone else to tell them what to do. this was proven with the TEXAS mad cow cases alone,
r i g h t...... $$$ IF this is the case, why is Weybridge having to confirm our inconclusives ??? this is frightening.

IF not for the Honorable Phyllis Fong, that cow would have never been proven postive, well, documented anyway, it was proven postive time and time again...

The Fong Syndrome strikes again.

GW's BSE/TSE MRR policy a recipe for disaster.

USA in dire straights.

God help us... TSS

No Sacred Cows: Phyllis Fong Takes on the Beltway and Mad Cow Disease
News Report, AsianWeek Staff Report,
Asian Week, Jul 06, 2005

Newly appointed Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns appears to be headed for a showdown with veteran Inspector General Phyllis K. Fong for ordering new tests for mad cow disease in the nation’s beef supply.

Since the tests Fong ordered have returned positive, several countries have once again stopped buying U.S. beef, provoking uproar in the cattle industry.

Reacting to industry pressure, Johanns now claims Fong requested the tests without his knowledge or approval and added: “It caught me by surprise, to be very honest with you. I believe the secretary should be involved in all decisions of this significance.”

Fong, the senior officer of the Inspector General’s office of the USDA was sworn in on December 2, 2002 after serving as Inspector General for the Small Business Administration. Like Johanns, she is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. The Inspector General’s office is an independent arm of the department that performs audits and investigations.

When she ordered the re-testing of the latest case, she issued a statement saying she was also probing “the performance of [laboratories] in complying with procedures for conducting tests.” With the cow that was suspected of having the disease, she reported: “Auditors noted an unusual pattern of conflicting test results on one sample.”

The Veterinary Laboratories Agency in Weybridge, England, an outside testing agency, confirmed that a sample from an animal in November 2004 tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or mad cow disease.

Yet Johanns, who took the reins of the Agriculture Department early this year in a Bush cabinet shake-up, insists that Fong has overstepped her bounds. “I was asked by the Senate and the president to operate the department,” Johanns said. “She could recommend; she could strongly urge. But then the question is whether it’s an operational decision.”

He reportedly learned of Fong’s order from his chief of staff after the new testing was already under way. He charges that it’s up for debate whether Fong had the authority to order the new tests, and asserts: “It’s my domain.”

This is not the first time Fong has found herself in the eye of the storm.

After allegations of misconduct arose in the handling of the first cow with mad cow disease, Fong launched a criminal investigation.

“Currently we are investigating allegations surrounding the actual state of the diseased cow before it went to slaughter,” Fong testified last year before the House subcommittee on agriculture appropriations. “So that’s a criminal investigation that’s open, ongoing, active and it’s focused on that issue.”

Fong’s investigation concluded that there was no criminal negligence, but in July she released an audit of the USDA’s testing program and concluded it had serious flaws that could undermine its credibility and lead to questionable estimates of how widespread the disease is in America.

Fong recently re-opened investigations started during the administration of Johanns’ predecessor, Ann Veneman. Veneman began a reform push on testing U.S. beef, but her efforts eventually ran aground amid battles between competing interests, including the beef industry, scientists and consumer activists.

The two behind-the-scenes audits follow complaints by several cow-state senators over policies and procedures in testing for mad cow disease.

Fong said in a statement that “our field work is ongoing” with results expected “late this summer.”

USDA’s Top Cop

As a young girl, Phyllis Fong had a hankering for the law. Those interests began in her childhood, kindled by her father.

“When I was growing up, I remember searching, as all kids do, for a career path that matched my talents,” she said in an article for the USDA. “And my father said to me, at one point in high school, that he really thought law school would be right for me, that I would be a tremendous lawyer. I had never thought about that as an option.”

Fong’s family had emigrated from Hawai‘i to China generations before, in the mid-1800s. Unlike a lot of APA families who insist that the children follow in the family business, Fong recalls, “He was a doctor and yet he did not suggest I go into medical school. I think he was tired of my arguing with him about everything!”

“I had a wonderful experience growing up. They call Hawai‘i a melting pot because of its multi-racial and multi-cultural society. I always felt that everyone there had the opportunity to become anything. It didn’t matter what color, what sex, what race, what ethnic heritage you were, if you were interested in something you could pursue it,” she said.

An unusual route led to her toward the senior job as USDA’s Inspector General. After studying Asian studies and finishing her law degree, she intended to become an international lawyer specializing in trade and immigration.

But when Fong arrived in Washington, D.C., she got a job with the U.S. Civil Rights Commission, which at the time was studying immigration policy. One thing led to another, and a colleague who was the Inspector General at the U.S. Small Business Administration asked her to become her special assistant

“I realized this was a good opportunity. Who can be against going after fraud and abuse? Who can be against economy and efficiency in government?” Fong has been in the field ever since, and oversees about 600 employees divided almost evenly between investigators and auditors.

Name: Phyllis K. Fong

Salary: $136,900

Position: Inspector General, USDA. She’s responsible for conducting and supervising audits and evaluations, as well as investigations and law enforcement efforts.

Birthplace: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Family: Married, two daughters, ages 4 and 7

Education: BA degree in Asian Studies, Pomona College; Juris Doctorate, Vanderbilt University School of Law

Past Experience: She was Inspector General of the U.S. Small Business Administration from 1999-2002 after holding several positions with the SBA, including Assistant Inspector General for Management and Legal Counsel and Assistant Inspector General for Management and Policy. In the early 1980s, she had served as assistant general counsel for the Legal Services Corporation and, before that, as an attorney with the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.

Hobbies/Interests: Needlepoint

Priorities: “To instill the message within USDA that OIG’s mission is not just to audit and investigate. Our mission is to work in partnership with the Department to manage programs more effectively and deal with fraud and abuse.”

The Associated Press and USDA contributed to this report.

FDA Statement
May 4, 2004
Media Inquiries: 301-827-6242
Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA

Statement on Texas Cow With Central Nervous System Symptoms
On Friday, April 30 th , the Food and Drug Administration learned that a cow
with central nervous system symptoms had been killed and shipped to a
processor for rendering into animal protein for use in animal feed.

FDA, which is responsible for the safety of animal feed, immediately began
an investigation. On Friday and throughout the weekend, FDA investigators
inspected the slaughterhouse, the rendering facility, the farm where the
animal came from, and the processor that initially received the cow from the

FDA's investigation showed that the animal in question had already been
rendered into "meat and bone meal" (a type of protein animal feed). Over the
weekend FDA was able to track down all the implicated material. That
material is being held by the firm, which is cooperating fully with FDA.

Cattle with central nervous system symptoms are of particular interest
because cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE, also known as
"mad cow disease," can exhibit such symptoms. In this case, there is no way
now to test for BSE. But even if the cow had BSE, FDA's animal feed rule
would prohibit the feeding of its rendered protein to other ruminant animals
(e.g., cows, goats, sheep, bison).

FDA is sending a letter to the firm summarizing its findings and informing
the firm that FDA will not object to use of this material in swine feed
only. If it is not used in swine feed, this material will be destroyed. Pigs
have been shown not to be susceptible to BSE. If the firm agrees to use the
material for swine feed only, FDA will track the material all the way
through the supply chain from the processor to the farm to ensure that the
feed is properly monitored and used only as feed for pigs.

To protect the U.S. against BSE, FDA works to keep certain mammalian protein
out of animal feed for cattle and other ruminant animals. FDA established
its animal feed rule in 1997 after the BSE epidemic in the U.K. showed that
the disease spreads by feeding infected ruminant protein to cattle.

Under the current regulation, the material from this Texas cow is not
allowed in feed for cattle or other ruminant animals. FDA's action
specifying that the material go only into swine feed means also that it will
not be fed to poultry.

FDA is committed to protecting the U.S. from BSE and collaborates closely
with the U.S. Department of Agriculture on all BSE issues. The animal feed
rule provides crucial protection against the spread of BSE, but it is only
one of several such firewalls. FDA will soon be improving the animal feed
rule, to make this strong system even stronger.




January 30, 2001
Print Media: 301-827-6242
Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA


Note: On Dec. 23, 2003, the U.S. Department of Agriculture reported that a
cow in Washington state had tested positive for bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease). As a result, information on this
Web page stating that no BSE cases had been found in the United States is
now incorrect. However, because other information on this page continues to
have value, the page will remain available for viewing.


Today the Food and Drug Administration announced the results of tests taken
on feed used at a Texas feedlot that was suspected of containing meat and
bone meal from other domestic cattle -- a violation of FDA's 1997
prohibition on using ruminant material in feed for other ruminants. Results
indicate that a very low level of prohibited material was found in the feed
fed to cattle.

FDA has determined that each animal could have consumed, at most and in
total, five-and-one-half grams - approximately a quarter ounce -- of
prohibited material. These animals weigh approximately 600 pounds.

It is important to note that the prohibited material was domestic in origin
(therefore not likely to contain infected material because there is no
evidence of BSE in U.S. cattle), fed at a very low level, and fed only once.
The potential risk of BSE to such cattle is therefore exceedingly low, even
if the feed were contaminated.

According to Dr. Bernard Schwetz, FDA's Acting Principal Deputy
Commissioner, "The challenge to regulators and industry is to keep this
disease out of the United States. One important defense is to prohibit the
use of any ruminant animal materials in feed for other ruminant animals.
Combined with other steps, like U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) ban
on the importation of live ruminant animals from affected countries, these
steps represent a series of protections, to keep American cattle free of

Despite this negligible risk, Purina Mills, Inc., is nonetheless announcing
that it is voluntarily purchasing all 1,222 of the animals held in Texas and
mistakenly fed the animal feed containing the prohibited material.
Therefore, meat from those animals will not enter the human food supply. FDA
believes any cattle that did not consume feed containing the prohibited
material are unaffected by this incident, and should be handled in the beef
supply clearance process as usual.

FDA believes that Purina Mills has behaved responsibly by first reporting
the human error that resulted in the misformulation of the animal feed
supplement and then by working closely with State and Federal authorities.

This episode indicates that the multi-layered safeguard system put into
place is essential for protecting the food supply and that continued
vigilance needs to be taken, by all concerned, to ensure these rules are
followed routinely.

FDA will continue working with USDA as well as State and local officials to
ensure that companies and individuals comply with all laws and regulations
designed to protect the U.S. food supply.

Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in

Corinne Ida Lasmézas, Emmanuel Comoy, Stephen Hawkins, Christian Herzog,
Franck Mouthon, Timm Konold, Frédéric Auvré, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie
Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nicole Salès, Gerald Wells, Paul Brown, Jean-Philippe
Summary The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
(vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral
infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to
transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to
non-human primates. We gave two macaques a 5 g oral dose of brain homogenate
from a BSE-infected cow. One macaque developed vCJD-like neurological
disease 60 months after exposure, whereas the other remained free of disease
at 76 months. On the basis of these findings and data from other studies, we
made a preliminary estimate of the food exposure risk for man, which
provides additional assurance that existing public health measures can
prevent transmission of BSE to man.

Published online January 27, 2005

It is clear that the designing scientists must

also have shared Mr Bradley's surprise at the results because all the dose

levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


6. It also appears to me that Mr Bradley's answer (that it would take less
than say 100

grams) was probably given with the benefit of hindsight; particularly if one

considers that later in the same answer Mr Bradley expresses his surprise
that it

could take as little of 1 gram of brain to cause BSE by the oral route
within the

same species. This information did not become available until the "attack

experiment had been completed in 1995/96. This was a titration experiment

designed to ascertain the infective dose. A range of dosages was used to

that the actual result was within both a lower and an upper limit within the

and the designing scientists would not have expected all the dose levels to

infection. The dose ranges chosen by the most informed scientists at that

ranged from 1 gram to three times one hundred grams. It is clear that the

scientists must have also shared Mr Bradley's surprise at the results
because all the

dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.

Re: BSE .1 GRAM LETHAL NEW STUDY SAYS via W.H.O. Dr Maura Ricketts

[BBC radio 4 FARM news]

2) Infectious dose:

To cattle: 1 gram of infected brain material (by oral ingestion)


Medical Sciences
Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy:
Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Cristina Casalone *, Gianluigi Zanusso , Pierluigi Acutis *, Sergio Ferrari
, Lorenzo Capucci , Fabrizio Tagliavini ¶, Salvatore Monaco ||, and Maria
Caramelli *

*Centro di Referenza Nazionale per le Encefalopatie Animali, Istituto
Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via
Bologna, 148, 10195 Turin, Italy; Department of Neurological and Visual
Science, Section of Clinical Neurology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale
L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy; Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale
della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi, 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy; and
¶Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta," Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan,

Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA,
and approved December 23, 2003 (received for review September 9, 2003)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are
mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational
conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant
isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Human and
animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be biochemically
differentiated on the basis of the molecular mass of the protease-resistant
PrPSc fragments and the degree of glycosylation. Epidemiological, molecular,
and transmission studies strongly suggest that the single strain of agent
responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has infected humans,
causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The unprecedented biological
properties of the BSE agent, which circumvents the so-called "species
barrier" between cattle and humans and adapts to different mammalian
species, has raised considerable concern for human health. To date, it is
unknown whether more than one strain might be responsible for cattle TSE or
whether the BSE agent undergoes phenotypic variation after natural
transmission. Here we provide evidence of a second cattle TSE. The disorder
was pathologically characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive
amyloid plaques, as opposed to the lack of amyloid deposition in typical BSE
cases, and by a different pattern of regional distribution and topology of
brain PrPSc accumulation. In addition, Western blot analysis showed a PrPSc
type with predominance of the low molecular mass glycoform and a
protease-resistant fragment of lower molecular mass than BSE-PrPSc.
Strikingly, the molecular signature of this previously undescribed bovine
PrPSc was similar to that encountered in a distinct subtype of sporadic
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


C.C. and G.Z. contributed equally to this work.

||To whom correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: .

1: J Infect Dis 1980 Aug;142(2):205-8

Oral transmission of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie to
nonhuman primates.

Gibbs CJ Jr, Amyx HL, Bacote A, Masters CL, Gajdusek DC.

Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of humans and scrapie disease of sheep
and goats were transmitted to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that were
exposed to the infectious agents only by their nonforced consumption of
known infectious tissues. The asymptomatic incubation period in the one
monkey exposed to the virus of kuru was 36 months; that in the two monkeys
exposed to the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was 23 and 27 months,
respectively; and that in the two monkeys exposed to the virus of scrapie
was 25 and 32 months, respectively. Careful physical examination of the
buccal cavities of all of the monkeys failed to reveal signs or oral
lesions. One additional monkey similarly exposed to kuru has remained
asymptomatic during the 39 months that it has been under observation.

PMID: 6997404


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