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From: TSS ()
Subject: Beef Banned Under Mad Cow Rules Is Recalled (1,856 pounds)
Date: August 23, 2005 at 12:11 pm PST

Aug 23, 2005 11:28 am US/Eastern

Beef Banned Under Mad Cow Rules Is Recalled

(AP) WASHINGTON Beef banned under mad cow disease rules was shipped to wholesalers in a half-dozen states and is now being recalled by a Wisconsin beef plant.

The 1,856 pounds of beef included meat from a Canadian cow that inspectors in Canada determined was eligible for shipment to the United States. A Canadian audit two weeks later found, however that the cow was too old to be allowed entry to the U.S.

“There is a minimal chance, given the age of the animal and the health of the animal, that there was any risk whatsoever” to people, Steven Cohen, spokesman for the Agriculture Department’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, said Monday.

The U.S. restricts shipments to younger animals because infection levels from mad cow disease are believed to rise with age. The cutoff is 30 months of age.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is investigating and has suspended the veterinarian who certified the cow, said Francine Lord, import-export manager for the agency’s animal health division. She said the agency finished its audit last week and notified U.S. officials Thursday. The Agriculture Department said Canadian officials verified the cow’s age on Friday.

The cow in question was 31 months old. Two other Canadian cows less than 30 months old were processed with the older cow, and USDA recalled meat from all three animals as a precaution.

Green Bay Dressed Beef of Green Bay, Wis., processed the cow on Aug. 4 and distributed the meat to wholesalers in Pennsylvania, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The department and the company are trying to find out how much beef wound up in retail stores, Cohen said.

The department issued code numbers for recalled cases of beef sent to distributors, but it was unknown whether beef that reached the retail level would have carried the same numbers.

Consumer groups have criticized the government for not revealing the names of retail stores involved in food recalls.

“When it comes to a case like this, the retailer is never disclosed—how are you ever going to know whether your chuck roast was involved in this recall or not?” asked Jean Halloran, director of food policy initiatives at Consumers Union. “The consumer has absolutely no way of knowing.”

The recall is for cuts of meat that could contain backbone because the cow’s backbone was not removed. Those cuts include neck bone, short loin and bone-in chuck.

The U.S. requires the removal of backbone and nerve parts— which can carry mad cow disease—when older cows are slaughtered. The at-risk tissues are removed from cows older than 30 months.

U.S. and Canadian officials said the cow in question wasn’t the only problem in a shipment of 35 cows from Ontario: Also in that shipment were eight pregnant cows, which the U.S. also prohibits. The cows were processed for distribution but their calves were destroyed, the Agriculture Department said.

Those cows are part of the Canadian investigation, Lord said.

The U.S. closed its borders to Canadian cattle in May 2003, when Canada discovered its first case of mad cow disease. The government allowed Canadian imports to resume last July after a court battle with a group of western ranchers suing to keep the border closed.

Canada subsequently found two more cases of mad cow disease. The U.S. also found two cases, one in a cow that had been imported from Canada.

Since the border reopened, 40,390 Canadian cows have crossed the border.

Mad cow disease is the common name for a brain-wasting ailment called bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE. In humans, eating meat contaminated with BSE has been linked to about 150 deaths from a rare but fatal degenerative disease called variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

(© 2005 The Associated Press.

http://wcbstv.com/health/health_story_235113004.html

Greetings,

>>>The U.S. requires the removal of backbone and nerve parts— which can carry mad cow disease—when older cows are slaughtered. The at-risk tissues are removed from cows older than 30 months.<<<


THIS over 30 month rule is a hoot. USDA et al are really pulling a fast one over on the public and the potential for human health. this again is what i call 'corporate political science', anything but 'sound science'. this BSE MRR policy of the USDA/GW et al is nothing more than poison. force fed poison. the fact that the consumer cannot even access the locations of this potential mad cow poison to know if they consumed it, is yet more evidence to the cover-up. ...

International Symposium of Prion Diseases held in Sendai, October 31, to
November 2, 2004;

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Japan


snip...

"Furthermore, current studies into transmission of cases of BSE that are
atypical or that develop in young cattle are expected to amplify the BSE
prion"


NO. Date conf. Farm Birth place and Date Age at diagnosis


8. 2003.10.6. Fukushima Tochigi 2001.10.13. 23


9. 2003.11.4. Hiroshima Hyogo 2002.1.13. 21


Test results


# 8b, 9c cows Elisa Positive, WB Positive, IHC negative, histopathology
negative


b = atypical BSE case


c = case of BSE in a young animal


b,c, No PrPSc on IHC, and no spongiform change on histology


International Symposium of Prion Diseases held in Sendai, October 31, to
November 2, 2004.

The hardback book title is 'PRIONS' Food and Drug Safety
T. Kitamoto (Ed.)

SPRINGER 2005


Docket No. 03-080-1 -- USDA ISSUES PROPOSED RULE TO ALLOW LIVE ANIMAL
IMPORTS FROM CANADA

snip...


the myth that cattle under 30 months of age are free from BSE/TSE is
just that, a myth, and it's a false myth !

the youngest age of BSE case to date is 20 months old; As at: 31 May
2003 Year of onset Age youngest case (mnths) Age 2nd youngest case
(mnths) Age 2nd oldest case (yrs.mnths) Age oldest case (yrs.mnths) 1986
30 33 5.03 5.07 1987 30 31 9.09 10.00 1988 24 27 10.02 11.01(2) 1989 21
24(4) 12.00(2) 15.04 1990 24(2) 26 13.03 14.00 1991 24 26(3) 14.02 17.05
1992 20 26 15.02 16.02 1993 29 30(3) 14.10 18.10 1994 30(2) 31(2) 14.05
16.07 1995 24 32 14.09 15.05 1996 29 30 15.07 17.02 1997 37(7) 38(3)
14.09 15.01 1998 34 36 14.07 15.05 1999 39(2) 41 13.07 13.10 2000 40 42
17.08 19.09 2001 48(2) 56 14.10 14.11 2002 51 52 15.08 15.09(2) 2003 50
62 11.11 14.11


http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/bse/statistics/bse/yng-old.html

http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/bse/index.html

snip...


https://web01.aphis.usda.gov/BSEcom.nsf/0/b78ba677e2b0c12185256dd300649f9d?OpenDocument&AutoFramed


PART IV
FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASES


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

snip...



Another study was conducted to examine the pathogenesis of BSE in cattle; that is the replication (tissue distribution) of the agent during the incubation period. This study, which has not yet been completed, has identified the agent via mouse bioassay in the distal ileum of the experimentally infected calves. It is thought that the agent may be associated with the lymphoid tissue of the intestines. The calves were 4 months of age at the time of oral dosing. First isolation of the agent in the distal ileum was made at 6 months after oral dosing. Subsequent isolations from the distal ileum were made at 10, 14, and 18 months after dosing (47). Recently this study has also identified infectivity in bone marrow, trigeminal ganglion, dorsal root ganglion, brain, and spinal cord (48).


No infectivity has been found by parenteral or oral challenge, or both, in over 40 other tissues from clinically ill cattle using the mouse bioassay. It appears as if the distribution of the BSE agent is not as diverse as the scrapie agent in sheep. However, there is a possibility that the agent is present but is at such low levels that the bioassay is not sensitive enough to detect it (30).
Incubation Period

The incubation period usually ranges from 2 to 8 years. Following the onset of clinical signs, the animal's condition gradually deteriorates until the animal becomes recumbent, dies, or is destroyed. This usually takes from 2 weeks to 6 months. Most cases in Great Britain have occurred in dairy cows (Friesians) between 3 and 6 years of age (50). The youngest confirmed case occurred in a 20-month-old heifer, and the oldest case was found in a cow 18 years of age.


snip...


L. A. DETWILER, D.V.M. , USDA, APHIS, VS, Robbinsville, NJ 08691

R. RUBENSTEIN, Ph.D., NYS Institute for Basic Research, Staten Island, NY 10314-6399


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book/FAD/bse.htm

http://www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book/FAD/index.htm


USDA 2003

We have to be careful that we don't get so set in the way we do things that
we
forget to look for different emerging variations of disease. We've gotten
away from collecting the whole brain in our systems. We're using the brain
stem and we're looking in only one area. In Norway, they were doing a
project and looking at cases of Scrapie, and they found this where they did
not find lesions or PRP in the area of the obex. They found it in the
cerebellum and the cerebrum. It's a good lesson for us. Ames had to go
back and change the procedure for looking at Scrapie samples. In the USDA,
we had routinely looked at all the sections of the brain, and then we got
away from it. They've recently gone back.
Dr. Keller: Tissues are routinely tested, based on which tissue provides an
'official' test result as recognized by APHIS
.

Dr. Detwiler: That's on the slaughter. But on the clinical cases, aren't
they still asking for the brain? But even on the slaughter, they're looking
only at the brainstem. We may be missing certain things if we confine
ourselves to one area.


snip.............


Dr. Detwiler: It seems a good idea, but I'm not aware of it.
Another important thing to get across to the public is that the negatives
do not guarantee absence of infectivity. The animal could be early in the
disease and the incubation period. Even sample collection is so important.
If you're not collecting the right area of the brain in sheep, or if
collecting lymphoreticular tissue, and you don't get a good biopsy, you
could miss the area with the PRP in it and come up with a negative test.
There's a new, unusual form of Scrapie that's been detected in Norway. We
have to be careful that we don't get so set in the way we do things that we
forget to look for different emerging variations of disease. We've gotten
away from collecting the whole brain in our systems. We're using the brain
stem and we're looking in only one area. In Norway, they were doing a
project and looking at cases of Scrapie, and they found this where they did
not find lesions or PRP in the area of the obex. They found it in the
cerebellum and the cerebrum. It's a good lesson for us. Ames had to go
back and change the procedure for looking at Scrapie samples. In the USDA,
we had routinely looked at all the sections of the brain, and then we got
away from it. They've recently gone back.

Dr. Keller: Tissues are routinely tested, based on which tissue provides an
'official' test result as recognized by APHIS
.

Dr. Detwiler: That's on the slaughter. But on the clinical cases, aren't
they still asking for the brain? But even on the slaughter, they're looking
only at the brainstem. We may be missing certain things if we confine
ourselves to one area.


snip...


FULL TEXT;


Completely Edited Version
PRION ROUNDTABLE


Accomplished this day, Wednesday, December 11, 2003, Denver, Colorado

NO URL... TSS


PrPSc distribution of a natural case of bovine
spongiform encephalopathy SPRINGER 2005

Yoshifumi Iwamaru, Yuka Okubo, Tamako Ikeda, Hiroko Hayashi, Mori-
kazu Imamura, Takashi Yokoyama and Morikazu Shinagawa

Priori Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, 3-1-5
Kannondai, Tsukuba 305-0856 Japan gan@affrc.go.jp

Abstract

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a disease of cattle that causes
progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. Infectivity
of BSE agent is accompanied with an abnormal isoform of prion protein
(PrPSc).

The specified risk materials (SRM) are tissues potentially carrying BSE
infectivity. The following tissues are designated as SRM in Japan: the
skull including the brain and eyes but excluding the glossa and the masse-
ter muscle, the vertebral column excluding the vertebrae of the tail, spinal
cord, distal illeum. For a risk management step, the use of SRM in both
animal feed or human food has been prohibited. However, detailed
PrPSc distribution remains obscure in BSE cattle and it has caused con-
troversies about definitions of SRM. Therefore we have examined PrPSc
distribution in a BSE cattle by Western blotting to reassess definitions of
SRM.

The 11th BSE case in Japan was detected in fallen stock surveillance.
The carcass was stocked in the refrigerator. For the detection of PrPSc,
200 mg of tissue samples were homogenized. Following collagenase
treatment, samples were digested with proteinase K. After digestion,
PrPSc was precipitated by sodium phosphotungstate (PTA). The pellets
were subjected to Western blotting using the standard procedure.
Anti-prion protein monoclonal antibody (mAb) T2 conjugated horseradish
peroxidase was used for the detection of PrPSc.

PrPSc was detected in brain, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, trigeminal
ganglia, sublingual ganglion, retina. In addition, PrPSc was also detected
in the peripheral nerves (sciatic nerve, tibial nerve, vagus nerve).

Our results suggest that the currently accepted definitions of SRM in
BSE cattle may need to be reexamined. ...

179

T. Kitamoto (Ed.)
PRIONS
Food and Drug Safety
================


ALSO from the International Symposium of Prion Diseases held in Sendai, October 31, to
November 2, 2004. ... NO URL


107

Vet Pathol 42:107–108 (2005)

Letters to the Editor

Editor:

Absence of evidence is not always evidence of absence.

In the article ‘‘Failure to detect prion protein (PrPres) by

immunohistochemistry in striated muscle tissues of animals

experimentally inoculated with agents of transmissible spongiform

encephalopathy,’’ recently published in Veterinary

Pathology (41:78–81, 2004), PrPres was not detected in striated

muscle of experimentally infected elk, cattle, sheep, and

raccoons by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Negative IHC,

however, does not exclude the presence of PrPSc. For example,

PrPres was detected in skeletal muscle in 8 of 32

humans with the prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease (CJD), using sodium phosphotungstic acid (NaPTA)

precipitation and western blot.1 The NaPTA precipitation,

described by Wadsworth et al.,3 concentrates the abnormal

isoform of the prion, PrPres, from a large tissue homogenate

volume before western blotting. This technique has increased

the sensitivity of the western blot up to three orders

of magnitude and could be included in assays to detect

PrPres. Extremely conspicuous deposits of PrPres in muscle

were detected by IHC in a recent case report of an individual

with inclusion body myositis and CJD.2 Here, PrPres was

detected in the muscle by immunoblotting, IHC, and paraf-

fin-embedded tissue blot. We would therefore caution that,

in addition to IHC, highly sensitive biochemical assays and

bioassays of muscle are needed to assess the presence or

absence of prions from muscle in experimental and natural

TSE cases.

Christina Sigurdson, Markus Glatzel, and Adriano Aguzzi

Institute of Neuropathology

University Hospital of Zurich

Zurich, Switzerland

References

1 Glatzel M, Abela E, et al: Extraneural pathologic prion

protein in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. N Engl J

Med 349(19):1812–1820, 2003

2 Kovacs GG, Lindeck-Pozza E, et al: Creutzfeldt-Jakob

disease and inclusion body myositis: abundant diseaseassociated

prion protein in muscle. Ann Neurol 55(1):

121–125, 2004

3 Wadsworth JDF, Joiner S, et al: Tissue distribution of protease

resistant prion protein in variant CJD using a highly

sensitive immuno-blotting assay. Lancet 358:171–180,

2001

NO URL...TSS

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

P.O. Box 42

Bacliff, Texas USA 77518




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