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From: TSS ()
Subject: Ag secretary downplays mad cow threat
Date: August 13, 2005 at 7:46 am PST

Ag secretary downplays mad cow threat

By Barry Shlachter

Star-Telegram Staff Writer

Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns complained Friday that much news coverage of the country’s two cases of mad cow disease have been inaccurate, costing the beef industry billions of dollars, while the threat from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE, is “minuscule.”

“The reality is this: there is no BSE ‘outbreak’ in the United States, and there never was,” Johanns said in plain-spoken remarks to meat industry officials on Wednesday. The American Meat Institute, an industry group, released a transcript of the secretary’s speech on Friday.


The brain-wasting disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, or BSE, “has generated, in my opinion, far more headlines than it deserves,” he said. “In reality, BSE is a miniscule threat in this country. And, I might add, a rapidly declining one worldwide. Because it is a threat that is being brought under control.


“There have been only two cases of BSE in the United States. But unfortunately, the American cattle and beef industry lost billions of dollars in the ensuing publicity, much of which was not accurate.”


The first case involved a Canadian-bred dairy cow found in Washington in December 2003. The second was uncovered in Texas on June 24 after conflicting test results prompted the USDA’s inspector general to order more extensive tests.


Asked what the media had gotten wrong, USDA spokesman Jim Rogers said that the actual threat to humans from the disease had been overblown in some cases and that the story’s heavy and prolonged coverage was not warranted compared to the true risk to humans. The only U.S. case of variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, which is believed contracted by humans from contaminated beef, was a Florida woman who had lived in Britain when such tainted food was sold.


Michael Hansen, a science researcher with the Consumers Union and a critic of the department’s food safety program, said the billions lost to the beef industry were due to bans by such key importing nations as Japan and South Korea which, he said, were not responding to U.S. media reports. These countries reacted by imposing bans just as the United States had following the discovery of BSE cases in Europe, Hansen said.


“I think Johanns’ remarks are funny _ or sad,” Hansen went on. “He claims it’s a `minuscule’ threat rapidly declining in the world. That’s true because Europe and Japan have taken stringent measures. Japan is testing 100 percent of cows at slaughter, Europe 22 percent... and we’re doing about 1 percent.”


More than 420,000 cattle deemed high risk have been tested in the United States but Hansen complained that little data on the selected animals has been released that would confirm all in that category were being examined.

http://www.dfw.com/mld/dfw/news/12370540.htm

the usda et al are hiding madcows (this well documented in Texas with the SSS policy strictly enforced), and an cjd cluster in Idaho of 6 suspect victims in a state with a population of 1.4 million. i would say johann et al are dazed and confused...

Texas SSS Policy

ceverett@tahc.state.tx.us
For Immediate Release--
Anthrax Confirmed in Sutton County, Texas

Anthrax Confirmed in Sutton County, Texas

snip...


Two ranches in Sutton County, Texas have laboratory-confirmed cases of anthrax in horses, deer and cattle, and laboratory results are pending for
several other sites in the county, where livestock and deer losses have been reported. Although this bacterial disease occurs almost yearly in this region of the state,
cases have not been confirmed within Sutton County for more than 20 years. Typically, outbreaks are in Val Verde, Edwards, Kinney and Uvalde counties, but on rare occasions, cases have been confirmed as far south as Starr County, reports Dr. Thurman Fancher, director of Area 6 (West Texas) for the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC).

“Anthrax is under-reported, because many ranchers in this area automatically dispose of carcasses and vaccinate livestock when they find dead animals that are bloated or bloody--common signs of the disease,” said Dr. Fancher. “Anthrax is a reportable disease, however, and it’s important to know when an outbreak occurs, so other ranchers can be notified to vaccinate.........

snip...end

Aug. 13, 2005, 12:53AM


Idaho probes possible outbreak of rare brain-wasting disease
By MICHAEL KAHN
Reuters News Service


SAN FRANCISCO - Idaho officials said Friday an initial test has indicated one case of naturally occurring Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and they are investigating five other suspected cases, but said none is believed to have been caused by eating infected animals.

Tom Shanahan, a spokesman for the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, said five of the cases involve people who have already died, lived in neighboring counties and were over the age of 60. The sixth case centered on a man, also over the age of 60, who lived 90 miles away and was still alive.

CJD is a rare brain-wasting disease in humans that usually affects people in their 60s or 70s.

It is not the same as the human form of mad cow disease, which is known as CJD variant and is linked to eating beef from infected cattle.

"There are no indicators that it was anything but classic CJD," Shanahan said.

Naturally occurring CJD is found at a rate of about one case per 1 million population annually, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.

Yet in a state with only 1.4 million people, the fact that Idaho has so many suspected cases of the rare disease has sparked concern.

http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/nation/3308577


EFSA Scientific Report on the Assessment of the Geographical BSE-Risk (GBR) of the United States of America (USA)
Publication date: 20 August 2004
Adopted July 2004 (Question N° EFSA-Q-2003-083)

Report

Summary
Summary of the Scientific Report

The European Food Safety Authority and its Scientific Expert Working Group on the Assessment of the Geographical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Risk (GBR) were asked by the European Commission (EC) to provide an up-to-date scientific report on the GBR in the United States of America, i.e. the likelihood of the presence of one or more cattle being infected with BSE, pre-clinically as well as clinically, in USA. This scientific report addresses the GBR of USA as assessed in 2004 based on data covering the period 1980-2003.

The BSE agent was probably imported into USA and could have reached domestic cattle in the middle of the eighties. These cattle imported in the mid eighties could have been rendered in the late eighties and therefore led to an internal challenge in the early nineties. It is possible that imported meat and bone meal (MBM) into the USA reached domestic cattle and leads to an internal challenge in the early nineties.

A processing risk developed in the late 80s/early 90s when cattle imports from BSE risk countries were slaughtered or died and were processed (partly) into feed, together with some imports of MBM. This risk continued to exist, and grew significantly in the mid 90’s when domestic cattle, infected by imported MBM, reached processing. Given the low stability of the system, the risk increased over the years with continued imports of cattle and MBM from BSE risk countries.

EFSA concludes that the current GBR level of USA is III, i.e. it is likely but not confirmed that domestic cattle are (clinically or pre-clinically) infected with the BSE-agent. As long as there are no significant changes in rendering or feeding, the stability remains extremely/very unstable. Thus, the probability of cattle to be (pre-clinically or clinically) infected with the BSE-agent persistently increases.

http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/efsa_scientific_reports/gbr_assessments/573_en.html


nothing inaccurate here either ;

FDA Statement
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Statement
May 4, 2004
Media Inquiries: 301-827-6242
Consumer Inquiries: 888-INFO-FDA

Statement on Texas Cow With Central Nervous System Symptoms
On Friday, April 30 th , the Food and Drug Administration learned that a cow with central nervous system symptoms had been killed and shipped to a processor for rendering into animal protein for use in animal feed.

FDA, which is responsible for the safety of animal feed, immediately began an investigation. On Friday and throughout the weekend, FDA investigators inspected the slaughterhouse, the rendering facility, the farm where the animal came from, and the processor that initially received the cow from the slaughterhouse.

FDA's investigation showed that the animal in question had already been rendered into "meat and bone meal" (a type of protein animal feed). Over the weekend FDA was able to track down all the implicated material. That material is being held by the firm, which is cooperating fully with FDA.

Cattle with central nervous system symptoms are of particular interest because cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE, also known as "mad cow disease," can exhibit such symptoms. In this case, there is no way now to test for BSE. But even if the cow had BSE, FDA's animal feed rule would prohibit the feeding of its rendered protein to other ruminant animals (e.g., cows, goats, sheep, bison).

FDA is sending a letter to the firm summarizing its findings and informing the firm that FDA will not object to use of this material in swine feed only. If it is not used in swine feed, this material will be destroyed. Pigs have been shown not to be susceptible to BSE. If the firm agrees to use the material for swine feed only, FDA will track the material all the way through the supply chain from the processor to the farm to ensure that the feed is properly monitored and used only as feed for pigs.

To protect the U.S. against BSE, FDA works to keep certain mammalian protein out of animal feed for cattle and other ruminant animals. FDA established its animal feed rule in 1997 after the BSE epidemic in the U.K. showed that the disease spreads by feeding infected ruminant protein to cattle.

Under the current regulation, the material from this Texas cow is not allowed in feed for cattle or other ruminant animals. FDA's action specifying that the material go only into swine feed means also that it will not be fed to poultry.

FDA is committed to protecting the U.S. from BSE and collaborates closely with the U.S. Department of Agriculture on all BSE issues. The animal feed rule provides crucial protection against the spread of BSE, but it is only one of several such firewalls. FDA will soon be improving the animal feed rule, to make this strong system even stronger.

####

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/news/2004/NEW01061.html


IN TEXAS, we feed our cattle ruminant protein, and lots of it. but remember (the fda cannot seem to get this right)

.1 gram is lethal;

THE TEXAS GONZALES/PURINA INCIDENT SHOWED THAT 5.5 GRAMS OF
RUMINANT PROTEIN WAS FED TO CATTLE ;

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
P01-05
January 30, 2001
Print Media:
301-827-6242
Broadcast Media:
301-827-3434
Consumer Inquiries:
888-INFO-FDA

FDA ANNOUNCES TEST RESULTS FROM TEXAS FEED LOT

Today the Food and Drug Administration announced the results of tests
taken on feed used at a Texas feedlot
that was suspected of containing meat and bone meal from other domestic
cattle -- a violation of FDA's 1997
prohibition on using ruminant material in feed for other ruminants.
Results indicate that a very low level of
prohibited material was found in the feed fed to cattle.

FDA has determined that each animal could have consumed, at most and in
total, five-and-one-half grams -
approximately a quarter ounce -- of prohibited material. These animals
weigh approximately 600 pounds.

It is important to note that the prohibited material was domestic in
origin (therefore not likely to contain infected
material because there is no evidence of BSE in U.S. cattle), fed at a
very low level, and fed only once. The
potential risk of BSE to such cattle is therefore exceedingly low, even
if the feed were contaminated.

According to Dr. Bernard Schwetz, FDA's Acting Principal Deputy
Commissioner, "The challenge to regulators
and industry is to keep this disease out of the United States. One
important defense is to prohibit the use of any
ruminant animal materials in feed for other ruminant animals. Combined
with other steps, like U.S. Department
of Agriculture's (USDA) ban on the importation of live ruminant animals
from affected countries, these steps
represent a series of protections, to keep American cattle free of BSE."

Despite this negligible risk, Purina Mills, Inc., is nonetheless
announcing that it is voluntarily purchasing all 1,222
of the animals held in Texas and mistakenly fed the animal feed
containing the prohibited material. Therefore,
meat from those animals will not enter the human food supply. FDA
believes any cattle that did not consume
feed containing the prohibited material are unaffected by this incident,
and should be handled in the beef supply
clearance process as usual.

FDA believes that Purina Mills has behaved responsibly by first
reporting the human error that resulted in the
misformulation of the animal feed supplement and then by working closely
with State and Federal authorities.

This episode indicates that the multi-layered safeguard system put into
place is essential for protecting the food
supply and that continued vigilance needs to be taken, by all concerned,
to ensure these rules are followed
routinely.

FDA will continue working with USDA as well as State and local officials
to ensure that companies and
individuals comply with all laws and regulations designed to protect the
U.S. food supply.

http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2001/NEW00752.html

From: TSS (216-119-144-34.ipset24.wt.net)
Subject: 1 in 2 CHANCE OF GETTING BSE AKA MAD COW BY THE ORAL ROUTE (PRIMATE STUDY)
Date: January 27, 2005 at 7:03 am PST

Risk of oral infection with bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent in primates

Corinne Ida Lasmézas, Emmanuel Comoy, Stephen Hawkins, Christian Herzog, Franck Mouthon, Timm Konold, Frédéric Auvré, Evelyne Correia, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nicole Salès, Gerald Wells, Paul Brown, Jean-Philippe Deslys
Summary The uncertain extent of human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)--which can lead to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)--is compounded by incomplete knowledge about the efficiency of oral infection and the magnitude of any bovine-to-human biological barrier to transmission. We therefore investigated oral transmission of BSE to non-human primates. We gave two macaques a 5 g oral dose of brain homogenate from a BSE-infected cow. One macaque developed vCJD-like neurological disease 60 months after exposure, whereas the other remained free of disease at 76 months. On the basis of these findings and data from other studies, we made a preliminary estimate of the food exposure risk for man, which provides additional assurance that existing public health measures can prevent transmission of BSE to man.

Published online January 27, 2005

http://www.thelancet.com/journal/journal.isa

It is clear that the designing scientists must

also have shared Mr Bradley’s surprise at the results because all the dose

levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s145d.pdf


2

6. It also appears to me that Mr Bradley’s answer (that it would take less than say 100

grams) was probably given with the benefit of hindsight; particularly if one

considers that later in the same answer Mr Bradley expresses his surprise that it

could take as little of 1 gram of brain to cause BSE by the oral route within the

same species. This information did not become available until the "attack rate"

experiment had been completed in 1995/96. This was a titration experiment

designed to ascertain the infective dose. A range of dosages was used to ensure

that the actual result was within both a lower and an upper limit within the study

and the designing scientists would not have expected all the dose levels to trigger

infection. The dose ranges chosen by the most informed scientists at that time

ranged from 1 gram to three times one hundred grams. It is clear that the designing

scientists must have also shared Mr Bradley’s surprise at the results because all the

dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.


http://www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/files/ws/s147f.pdf

Re: BSE .1 GRAM LETHAL NEW STUDY SAYS via W.H.O. Dr Maura Ricketts

[BBC radio 4 FARM news]

http://www.maddeer.org/audio/BBC4farmingtoday2_1_03.ram

http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/03/slides/3923s1_OPH.htm


2) Infectious dose:

To cattle: 1 gram of infected brain material (by oral ingestion)

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci/bio/bseesbe.shtml


NEW MAD COW STRAIN CALLED BASE, VERY SIMILAR TO SPORADIC CJD IN HUMANS;

Medical Sciences
Identification of a second bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy: Molecular similarities with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Cristina Casalone *, Gianluigi Zanusso , Pierluigi Acutis *, Sergio Ferrari , Lorenzo Capucci , Fabrizio Tagliavini ¶, Salvatore Monaco ||, and Maria Caramelli *

*Centro di Referenza Nazionale per le Encefalopatie Animali, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d'Aosta, Via Bologna, 148, 10195 Turin, Italy; Department of Neurological and Visual Science, Section of Clinical Neurology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134 Verona, Italy; Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia ed Emilia Romagna, Via Bianchi, 9, 25124 Brescia, Italy; and ¶Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "Carlo Besta," Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milan, Italy


Edited by Stanley B. Prusiner, University of California, San Francisco, CA, and approved December 23, 2003 (received for review September 9, 2003)

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are mammalian neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a posttranslational conversion and brain accumulation of an insoluble, protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Human and animal TSE agents exist as different phenotypes that can be biochemically differentiated on the basis of the molecular mass of the protease-resistant PrPSc fragments and the degree of glycosylation. Epidemiological, molecular, and transmission studies strongly suggest that the single strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has infected humans, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The unprecedented biological properties of the BSE agent, which circumvents the so-called "species barrier" between cattle and humans and adapts to different mammalian species, has raised considerable concern for human health. To date, it is unknown whether more than one strain might be responsible for cattle TSE or whether the BSE agent undergoes phenotypic variation after natural transmission. Here we provide evidence of a second cattle TSE. The disorder was pathologically characterized by the presence of PrP-immunopositive amyloid plaques, as opposed to the lack of amyloid deposition in typical BSE cases, and by a different pattern of regional distribution and topology of brain PrPSc accumulation. In addition, Western blot analysis showed a PrPSc type with predominance of the low molecular mass glycoform and a protease-resistant fragment of lower molecular mass than BSE-PrPSc. Strikingly, the molecular signature of this previously undescribed bovine PrPSc was similar to that encountered in a distinct subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C.C. and G.Z. contributed equally to this work.

||To whom correspondence should be addressed.

E-mail: salvatore.monaco@mail.univr.it .

www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0305777101


http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0305777101v1

IF Johann would only look at the TSE science, instead of commodities/futures science, he would see that Japan has a superb BSE/TSE surveillance program. IN fact, Ministry of Agriculture study showed nearly half of the 20 mad cow cases found in Japan would have passed unnoticed under U.S. testing methods, officials said Friday. IF only they knew, the USDA
Enhanced BSE surveillance of June 2004 was nothing more than an enhanced effort not to find one single case of BSE/TSE through there terribly flawwed BSE protocols. THEY knew this system was terribly flawwed, this is why it was implemented this way in the first place. they had no intention on finding any TSE/BSE in the USA, but could not even get that right.
old mad dave louthan capped that healthy walker where he should not have, thus it was considered a downer, when it was not, it was a healthy sub-clinical BSE cow they were forced to test. then you had the infamous postive, postive, secret positive, inconclusive, negative, and finally thanks to the Honorable Phyllis Fong, a Weybridge confirmation of positive BSE in that Texas cow, something we knew 8 months beforehand. AND of course we will never forget the other Texas mad cow they just rendered without any test at all, that stumbling and staggering other mad cow in Texas. WE all also know how much animal protein is fed in Texas to cows from the Gonzales Texas blunder (purina mill), where the FDA said it was O.K. for an animal to eat 5.5 grams of SRMs ruminant protein, when they knew way back that a gram was lethal, and now, we know that .1 gram is lethal.


Johann and his mad cow crystal ball must go. his crystal ball on BSE/TSE is full of lies and myths.
CAN johann prove that BSE/TSE in cattle will never and has never happened in cattle under 20 months.
please document this science that a cow under 20 cannot carry/harbour the TSE/BSE agent? show me the data?
show me this data that sub-clinical or 2nd passage of the agent does not exist?


yep, everything just hunky dorrie in the USA. no TSEs to worry about. right!

SCRAPIE USA MONTHLY REPORT 2005

AS of March 31, 2005, there were 70 scrapie infected source flocks (Figure 3). There were 11 new infected and source flocks reported in March (Figure 4) with a total of 51 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 39 (Figure 6), with 1 flock released in March. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.76 : 1. IN addition, as of March 31, 2005, 225 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 53 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in March 2005 (Figure 8). Fourteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat cases was reported in January 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released or put on clean-up plans for FY 2005 are depicted in Figure 10. ...

FULL TEXT ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html

WITH the MAY report, a scrapie case documented in a GOAT IN THE USA...TSS

SCRAPIE USA UPDATE MAY 2005


SCRAPIE has increased drastically since the report i posted in March 2005, with additional case in a goat;


SCRAPIE USA MONTHLY REPORT 2005

AS of March 31, 2005, there were 70 scrapie infected source flocks (Figure 3). There were 11 new infected and source flocks reported in March (Figure 4) with a total of 51 flocks reported for FY 2005 (Figure 5). The total infected and source flocks that have been released in FY 2005 are 39 (Figure 6), with 1 flock released in March. The ratio of infected and source flocks released to newly infected and source flocks for FY 2005 = 0.76 : 1. IN addition, as of March 31, 2005, 225 scrapie cases have been confirmed and reported by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), of which 53 were RSSS cases (Figure 7). This includes 57 newly confirmed cases in March 2005 (Figure 8). Fourteen cases of scrapie in goats have been reported since 1990 (Figure 9). The last goat cases was reported in January 2005. New infected flocks, source flocks, and flocks released or put on clean-up plans for FY 2005 are depicted in Figure 10. ...

FULL TEXT ;

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/scrapie/monthly_report/monthly-report.html


CWD USA UPDATE

http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/nahps/cwd/cwd-distribution.html


Press Releases
5/13/2005: More Negatives for Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Heards Learn More

5/9/2005: Negative Results for Chronic Wasting Disease in Captive Herd Learn More

5/4/2005: DEC Announces Sampling Results for Chronic Wasting Disease Learn More

4/29/2005: DEC Issues Emergency Regulations in Response to Discovery of Chronic Wasting Disease. Learn More

4/27/2005: Chronic Wasting Disease Found in Oneida County Deer. Learn More.

4/21/2005: DEC Releases Results of Tests for Chronic Wasting Disease. Learn More.

4/13/2005: DEC to Test For Chronic Wasting Disease in Hamilton County. Learn More.

4/8/2005: Chronic Wasting Disease Update: Test Results Reveal Three Additional Positives From Index Herd. Learn More.

4/5/2005: Chronic Wasting Disease Update. Learn More.

4/2/2005: Second Case of CWD Found in Oneida County Deer. Learn More.

3/31/2005: Positive Case of CWD Found in Oneida County Deer. Learn More.

Transcript from March 31 Press Conference Regarding First Case of CWD in NewYork State

If you have difficulty opening the PDF files, please contact the Department of Agriculture & Markets.


http://www.agmkt.state.ny.us/AI/cwd.html


From: TSS ()
Subject: State-Federal Team Responds to Texas BSE Case TAHC
Date: July 2, 2005 at 7:04 am PST

News Release

Texas Animal Health Commission

Box l2966 * Austin, Texas 78711 * (800) 550-8242 * FAX (512) 719-0719

Bob Hillman, DVM * Executive Director

For info, contact Carla Everett, information officer, at 1-800-550-8242, ext. 710,

or ceverett@tahc.state.tx.us


For immediate release---

State-Federal Team Responds to Texas BSE Case

The US Department of Agriculture announced June 29 that genetic testing has verified that an aged cow that tested

positive for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or BSE originated from a Texas beef cattle herd. Tissues for

laboratory testing were initially collected from the animal in November 2004, and the carcass was incinerated and

did not enter the human food, animal feed or fertilizer supply system. While tests in November indicated the

animal did not have BSE, retesting in England in June confirmed the animal had the disease. ...........snip...end


Subject: Statement by Dr. John Clifford Regarding Non-Definitive BSE Test Results
Date: July 27, 2005 at 12:37 pm PST

Jim Rogers (202) 690-4755
Jerry Redding (202) 720-6959

Statement by Dr. John Clifford Regarding Non-Definitive BSE Test Results

The sample was submitted to us by a private veterinarian. As an extension of our enhanced surveillance program, accredited private veterinarians, who often visit farms in remote areas, collect samples when warranted. The sample in question today was taken from a cow that was at least 12 years of age and experienced complications during calving. The veterinarian treated the sample with a preservative, which readies it for testing using the immunohistochemistry (IHC) test - an internationally recognized confirmatory test for BSE. Neither the rapid screening test nor the Western blot confirmatory test can be conducted on a sample that has been preserved. .......

snip...end


TSS



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