Infertile men may be at higher risk of developing prostate cancer than fertile men, a new study published in the journal Cancer suggests.
The finding may help design a screening tool for prostate cancer. The screening test, called prostate specific antigen (PSA test), is not reliable and can result in both false positive and false negative diagnosis.
The study showed that men who were diagnosed with infertility are 2.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than those who were not infertile.
Dr. Thomas Walsh of the University of Washington examined data from 22,000 Californian men who visited 15 California infertility centers from 1967 to 1998 and found 1.2 percent of infertile men developed prostate cancer compared to 0.4 percent of the fertile men.
Prostate cancer is diagnosed in more than 170,000 men each year in the United States and kills about 35,000 manually, according to cancer.gov.
Prostate cancer is a largely preventable disease. A healthy lifestyle, including a healthy diet, can substantially reduce risk of acquiring the disease.
By David Liu and editing by Rachel Stockton
Prostate cancer is largely preventable.
Much research has been done on how foods could affect the risk of prostate cancer. The following are citations from news articles published earlier on foodconsumer.org to give readers a glimpse of what men can do to prevent the disease.
1) A new review published in the September 2007 issue of Nutrition Review showed that eating plant-based diets may help patients with prostate cancer.
The review, conducted by SE Berkow from George Mason University and colleagues, was based on eight observational studies and 17 interventional or laboratory trials on the effect of plant-based diets and plant nutrients on both the progression and clinical outcome of prostate cancer.
2) Drinking black tea may help stop the progression of prostate cancer, suggests a new Indian study published in the September 15 issue of Life Science.
3) Taking lycopene supplements alone or along with soy isoflavones may prohibit the growth of prostate cancer, according to a phase II trial by researchers from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan.
4) Drinking lots of green tea each day was linked with reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer, but not localized prostate cancer, Japanese researchers found, adding to a growing body of evidence suggesting that green tea may provide protection against cancer.
The study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology
, found those who drank five or more cups of green tea a day were 48 percent less likely to develop advanced prostate cancer. The association was not seen for localized prostate cancer, though.
5) Taking supplements of soy isoflavones may help men at high risk of prostate cancer, suggests a new study by researchers from the University of Minnesota.
The study, published in the October 2007 issue of the Journal of Nutrition, confirmed early studies that showed an inverse association between isoflavones and prostate cancer in Japanese men.
6) Eating just one serving or more of broccoli and cauliflower per week may reduce the risk of prostate cancer by up to 45 percent, according to a new study published in the August 1, 2007, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
7) Men consuming high levels of soy products rich in isoflavones might be able to drastically reduce the risk of prostate cancer, according to a Japanese study appearing in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Nutrition, a publication of American Society for Nutrition.
8) Increased intake of soy isoflavones may reduce the risk of localized prostate cancer by up to 50%, according to a Japanese study, which also found high intake of soy compounds may worsen advanced prostate cancer.
9) High dietary intake of selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer in certain groups of men, a new study suggests.
The study by Ulrike Peters and colleagues from the Cancer Prevention Program at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle, Washington, and other organizations, found that the possible benefit was not for every man studied, but only for those who reported a high vitamin E intake and those taking multivitamins.
10) Eating tomatoes and broccoli together can maximize their protective effect against prostate cancer, according to a new study published in the January 15 issue of Cancer Research.